History From America's Most Famous Valleys
Life and Times of
Sir William Johnson, Bart.,
by William L. Stone
Albany: J. Munsell, 78 State Street, 1865.
APPENDIX No 7.
An Account of the Location of Indian Tribes by Sir William Johnson.
Names, Number of Men, Situation.
Mohocks, 160, Two villages on the Mohawk River, with a few emigrants at Schoharie about 16 miles from Fort Hunter.
Oneidas, 250, Stanwix, the other 12 miles west of Oneida Lake, with Emigrants in several places towards the Susquehanna River.
(Of the Six Nations, the Mohawks or Mohocks, Onondagas and Sececas are considered as the chief and elder branches, the Oneidas, Cayugas and Tuscaroras are the younger; the last mentioned Nation having many years ago retired from the southward, were admitted into the Confederacy with the then Five Nations, the Oneidas giving them land, and they now enjoy all privileges with the rest.)
Tuscaroras, 140, One village 6 miles from the first Oneidas, and several others about the Susquehanna.
Onondagas, 150, One large village, 6 m., from the lake of their name (which is the place of congress for the Confederation) with a smaller at some distance.
Cayugas, 200, One large village near the lake of their name, with several others from thence to the Susquehanna.
Senecas, 1050, Have several villages beginning about 50 m. from Cayuga, and from thence to Chenussio, the largest about 70 m. from Niagara, with others thence to the Ohio.
(Of the Senecas, two villages are still in our interest, vizt: Kanadasero and Kanaderagey; the rest have joined the western nations.)
Oswegachys, 80, Emigrants from the Six Nations chiefly Onondagas settled at La Gallette on the River St. Lawrence.
(These are at peace with the English.)
Nanticokes, Conoys, Tutecoes, Saponeys etc., A people removed from the southward and settled on and about the Susquehanna on lands allotted by the Six Nations.
(These people are immediately under the direction of the Six Nations, and at peace with the English.)
INDIANS IN ALLIANCE WITH THE SIX NATIONS.
Caghnawagas, 300, Emigrants from the Mohocks settled at Sault St. Louis near Montreal, with Emigrants at Aghquissasne, below La Galette, which is the seat of a Mission.
Canasadagas, Arundacs, Algonkins, 150, These three Nations now reside together at the Lac de deux Montagnes at the mouth of the Ottawa River near Montreal.
(The above two groups-- All these nations are in alliance with the Six Nations, and warmly attached to the British interest, as are all the other Indians in Canada--Caughnawaga is the seat of a mission, as is the village of Lac du deux Montagnes.)
Abenaquis, 100, Their village having been burned at St. Francis, below Montreal, during the war, they have since lived scattered except a few.
(These Indians are originally from New England; if they were all collected they would amount to more than is represented. They have likewise a missionary who is a Jesuit.)
Skaghquanoghronos, 40, Reside at Trois Rivieres, they are originally Algonkins.
(There are several other nations to the northward, who avoid any connection with the white people; and as they have no fixed residence, their numbers, though considerable, can not be ascertained.)
Hurons, 40, Reside at Loretto, near Quebec, a very civilized people.
(Same Comment: There are several other nations to the northward, who avoid any connection with the white people; and as they have no fixed residence, their numbers, though considerable, can not be ascertained.)
Shawnese, 300, Removed to the river Scioto, and other branches.
Delawares, 600, Susquehanna, Muskigum, etc., and thence to Lake Erie.
(These people are greatly influenced by the Senecas, and reside on lands allotted them by the permission of the Six Nations. They are now at war with the English.)
Wiandots, etc., 200, Some village in the neighborhood of Sandusky fort, near Lake Erie.
(There are also in the Six Nation Confederacy, many Indians, whose number cannot be computed, as they have no fixed residence.)
OTTAWA CONFEDERACY, COMPREHENDING THE TWIGHTWEES, ETC.
Windots or Hurons, 250, Reside opposite Detroit, their village is the seat of a Jesuit mission, their language bears affinity with that of the Six Nations.
(This nation has a great influence over the rest, and has been greatly instigated by the neighboring French to commit acts of hostility.)
Powtewatamis: (In the neighborhood of Detroit, 150; in the neighborhood of St. Joseph, 200) Detroit branch resided about a mile below the fort, but abandoned their village on the commencement of hostilities. St. Joseph branch resided a little below the fort.
Ottawas, Residing in the neighborhood of Detroit, 200...Resided about Detroit, but with the former, form a flying camp. (With these and the above Indians are joined several others who form a flying camp under Pontiac an Ottawa Chief.) In the neighborhood of Michillimakinac, 250. (The Ottawas in the neighborhood of Michillimackinac are well attached to us for the most part.) Resided in different villages, but are now probably with the former. Michillimakinac is the seat of a mission. In the neighborhood of Fort St. Joseph, 150.
Chipeweighs or Missisagais: In the neighborhood of Detroit, 320, Resided above the Detroit, now probably in arms with the rest.
(These are the most numerous of all the Ottawa Confederacy, and have many villages about lakes Superior, Huron, Eric, etc., whose numbers can not a present be ascertained with exactness.)
In the neighborhood of Michillimackinac, 400, Had several different villages in that country and the environs of Lake Huron.
Meynomeys, 110, Folsavoins, 100, Puans, 360, Sakis, 300, Foxes, 320. All these nations reside on the west side of La Baye, at Lake Michigan, and in the neighborhood of the fort there.
(These nations are at present in alliance with the Ottawa Confederacy, but appear inclined to our interest; nor did they take the fort at La Baye, the officer abandoning it, on the news of the rupture, as eh could make no defense.)
MIAMIS OR TWIGHTWEES.
Twightwees, 230, Kickapous, 180, Mascoutens, 90, Piankashaws 100, Wawiaghtonos, 200.. Near the fort, on the Miamis river. These nations reside in the neighborhood of the fort at Wawiaghta, and about the Wabache river.
(The Twightwees were originally a very powerful people, who, having been subdued by the Six Nations were permitted to enjoy their possessions. There are many tribes and villages of them, but these are all who are perfectly known.)
Ottawas, Chipeweight, etc., 4000 Total. Residing through all the extent of country, from the lakes, to the great Ottawa river, and at Lake Superior, etc. (This is the most exact computation which can be made of these numerous people who are scattered throughout the northern parts, and who having few places affixed residence, subsisting entirely by hunting, cannot be ascertained as those of their Confederacy residing near the out forts.)
Illinois number uncertain, Reside about the Illinois river, and hence to the Mississippi. (We have hitherto had nothing to do with these people, who are numerous and variously computed. The Six Nations claim their country, but their right of conquest thereto does not appear so clear as to the rest, as represented in the letter herewith.
Sioux number uncertain. Reside in the country westward fo the Mississippi, they are much addicted to wandering, and live mostly in camps.
(The Sioux, who are the most numerous of the northern Indians, are little known to us, they do not appear well affected to the western Indians, and promise to send deputies to me in the spring.)
Total .............................. 8020
November 18th, 1763. WM. JOHNSON.
to James F. Morrison for loaning his book for the purpose of putting it on
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