Three Rivers
History From America's Most Famous Valleys

The Orderly Book of Sir John Johnson
During the Oriskany Campaign
Annotated by Wm. L. Stone
With an Historical Introduction illustrating the Life of Johnson by J. Watts De Peyster, and Some Tracings from the Foot-Prints of the Tories, or Loyalists in America by T. R. Myers.
Joel Munsell, 1882

(Part Two, the file has to broken in segments
Col. Sir John Johnson's Command

KEY to the abbreviations in the Orderly Book.

C. (before a proper name)--Countersign.

C. (in guard detail)--Corporal.

D. -------------Drum or drummer.

G. O.-----------General Order

K. R. R. N. Y.---King's Royal Reg't of New York, Sir John Johnson's Reg't.

L. ------Lieutenant.

P. (before a proper name)--Paroled.

P. and Pt (in a guard detail) Privates.

S. -----Sergeant.

1777 MARCH 1st. P. India. C. Britain. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private Men. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day.
-2d. P. Tyron. C. Howe. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private Men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day.
-3d. P. Johnstown. C. Johnson. Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. Byrns, Officer of the Day.
-4th. P. Yorkshire. C. Hampshire. Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & Private Men. Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-5th. P. Exeter. C. York. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt, Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day.
-6th. P. Halifax. C. Boston. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private Men. Lieut Singleton, Officer, of the Day.
-7th. P. Quebec. C. Three Rivers. (1)For

(1) Three Rivers is a town of Canada East at the confluence of the rivers St. Maurice and St. Lawrence, ninety miles from Quebec. It contains, among other churches, a large Roman Catholic parish church, formerly served by the Recollets, or Franciscan Friars; but the Order is now extinct in Three Rivers. The convent of St. Ursule, founded by M. de St. Vallier, bishop of (Quebec, in 1677, is also a spacious building. The sisters of this convent particularly excel in the manufacture of very curious bark-work. They use the bark of the birch tree; and with it they make pocketbooks, workbaskets, dressing-boxes, etc., which they embroider with elk hair dyed of the most brilliant colors. They also make models of Indian canoes and the various warlike implements used by the Indians, all of which handiwork they sell, for the benefit of their convent, to the stray tourist who chances to sojourn in their neighborhood. " Nearly all the birch-bark canoes in use on the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers and on the nearer lakes," says Weld, " are manufactured at Three Rivers, and in the vicinity by Indians. The birch tree is found in great plenty near the town , but it is from the more northern part of the country, where the tree attains a very large size, that the principal part of the bark is procured that canoes are made with. The bark resembles in some degree that of the oak tree, but it is of a closer grain, and also much more pliable, for it admits of being rolled up the same as a piece of cloth. The Indians of this part of the country always carry large rolls of it in their canoes when they go on a hunting party, for the purpose of making temporary huts. The bark is spread on small poles over their heads, and fastened with strips of elm-bark (which is remarkably tough) to stakes, so as to form walls on the sides. Three Rivers, though long stationary as regards growth, has recently become one of the most thrifty places in the province. The district of Three

Guard to Morrow 1 S & 10 Pri Men. Ens Byrns Officer of the Day.

-8th. P. Sorel(1). C. Chamblee(2). For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Priv't Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-9th. P. Montreal. C. Burgoyne. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt & 10 Privt Men. Ens Crawford officer of the Day.
-l0th. P. Carleton. C. Phillips. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Privt Men. Lieut.Singleton, Officer of the Day.
-11th. P. Johnson. C. Gray. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Privt Men. Ens Byrns Officer of the Day.

Rivers includes both sides of the St. Lawrence, and is subdivided into four counties. The village, itself, besides being one of the oldest towns in Canada, is one of the most interesting on account of its historical associations, it having been for a long time the home of Nicolet (the discoverer or the Northwest), while acting as interpreter between the French and the western tribes. For this latter fact, See, Nicolet''s Discovery of the Northwest, by C. W. Butterfield.

(1) Sorel is situated at the mouth of the river of the same name (also called the Richelieu), which runs from Lake Champlain into the St. Lawrence. It was laid out in 1787 ; and is the only town on the St. Lawrence, between Montreal and Quebec, wherein English is the chief language. The river of Sorel is deep at its mouth, and affords good shelter for ships from the ice, at the breaking up of winter, but it is not navigable far beyond the town, even in flat-bottomed boats, on account of the rapids.

2 Chambly (the Seigniory of) on the River Richelieu or Sorel, and in the counties of Kent and Bedford, L. C., is three leagues in length by one in depth on each side of that river, and was granted, on the 29th of Oct., 1672, to M. de Chambly. At one time, this valuable property was owned by five persons, among whom were Sir John Johnson and Col. de Rouville, the latter of whom is mentioned in the text towards the end of the Orderly Book. Sir John Johnson must eventually have lost the benefit of this property, since he was in very poor circumstances in the latter part of his life. "When in Montreal shortly before Sir John Johnson's death," writes to me Mr. Winslow C. Watson, under date of Feb. 26, 1879, " Hon. Dominick Mondelet, then a leading advocate of the Canadian bar and afterwards Judge of the Queen's Bench, assured me of Sir John's extreme poverty, and that he was, at the time, conducting some litigation in behalf of the baronet."

-12th. P. County Tyron. C. Albany. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & 10 Privt Men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-13th. P. Newcastle. C. Tweed. For Guard to Morrow, 1 Sergt. & 10 Privet Men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding Officers Orders that the Sergts, Corpls, Drummers, & Private Men of the Kings Roy'l New York attend Exercise to Morrow Morning At Eleven O'clock-they are to Meet at the post above Capt Chenies(1).
-14th. P. England- C. America. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. Lieut Singleton Officer of the Day.
-15th. P. Ireland. C. Scotland. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day.
-16th. P Philadelphia. C. New York. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Privt. Men.
Ens Crothers Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding Officers Orders that an Exact Account be taken of the Clothing, Shirts, Shoes & Stockings &c of the Men of Every Comp, & the Quantity of them-an officer of each Comp to Attend at the time-& that the Account be given in to the Commanding Officer At Point Clair. That all

(1) An old hunter, and a descendant of this officer, is still (1882) living in a log shanty in the Adirondacks, between the Boreas River (a stream emptying into the Hudson) and Blue Mountain Lake--"Cheney Lake," in that vicinity, being named after him. Lieut. Cheney owned, at one time, a large tract of land in the adirondacks, but it has been all frittered away except what is held by the hunter above named.

the Officers for the future Attend Exercise of the Men from the hour of Eleven till One in the Afternoon if the Weather Permit. A Court Martial to Sit on Wednesday Next to try Such Prisoners as may be brought before them.

-17th. P. St. Patrick. C. Chiloy. For Guard to Morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. Men. Ens. Crawford, Officer of the Day.

-18th. P. Lochaber. C. Kintail. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 men. Lieut. Singleton Officer of the Day. A Regimental Court Martial to Sit to morrow at 12 o'clock. Lieut Singleton, President. Members, Ens Crothers, Ens Crawford. To try Such Prisoners as may be brought before them.

-19th. P. Barford. C. Melton. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Privt men. Ens. Byrne Officer of the Day.

-20th. P. Hatthersett. C. Eaton. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Privt men. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day.

-21 st. P. Dareham. C. Yarmouth. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Privt men. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day.

-22d. P. Howe. C. Tryon.(1) For Guard to

(1) The words "Howe and Tryon" as paroles and countersigns were fittingly designated by St. Leger, a man who resembled those general in all their cruel propensities. Indeed, we much doubt if, during our revolutionary struggle, there were any British officers more bloowthirsty than St. Leger, Howe and Tryon save, perhaps, Tarleton, and Cunningham the keeper of the Liberty St. Sugar House prison, the prototype, by the way, of the Richmond Tobacco House and Andersonville.

morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Lieut. Singleton Officer of the Day.
-23d. P. Johnstown. C. Johnson. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Pt. men. Ens Byrne, Officer of the Day.
-24th. P. Quebec. C. Orleans. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Privt men. Ens Crothers. Officer of the Day. A Regtl Court Martial to Sit to morrow Morning At 10 O'Clock at the Commanding Officers Quarters. Lieut. Walker, President. Ens Crothers, Ens Crawford Members, to try Such Prisoners as may be brought before them.
-25th. P. Albany. C. Boston. For Guard to morrow 1Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day.
-26th. P. Amboy. C. New York. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Lieut. Singleton, Officer of the Day.
-27th. P. Philadelphia. C. Anapolis For

The query arises : Were these names given out to incite the troops to cruelty, as were other paroles and countersigns (see our Introduction) designated as incentives to valor ? William Tryon had figured as an oppressor in 1768-1771 in North Carolina, and, becoming governor of New York, which he held when the war broke out, like the other royal governors, was compelled to yield to popular indignation which (being a cruel and narrow-minded man) he retaliated as a military leader. It was he who, later in the war, laid Danbury, Fairfield and Norwalk in ashes, when there was positively nothing to be gained in a strategic point of view, by the destruction of those places. At Fairfield, for example, the brutal Hessians, to whom Tryon gave a carte banche to ravage and destroy, excited by liquor, shamefully and cruelly treated the women who fell into their hands, whole families being "driven into the swamps for shelter against their infernal lusts." It has also been asserted, and not denied, that after the battle of Long Island, Howe allowed his troops and especially the Hessians, to tie up American prisoners and use them for marks to fire at! the excuse being, that "such treatment would keep the people from joining the rebel army, and thus the rebellion would be sooner ended!"

Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Ens Byrns, Officer of the Day. It is Major Gray's Orders that Officers Commanding Comp'nys Give in a Regular Return of different Comp'nys Weekly to the Quarter Master in order to draw their Provisions According to said Return; & When a Man is Absent or does not chuse to draw his Rations, the Officer of th. Comp'ny to wich he belongs is to Give in his name, at the foot of Said Return, Mentioning, if Absent, at what Place, the Qr. Master is to Make a Monthly Return to the Paymaster of the number of Rations for Said Month, & in that Return Give in a List of the Officers & Men who may be, or does not chuse to Draw Provisions. It is Major Gray's Orders that the Officers Commanding Companys will Examine the Accounts Given in to them by the Quarter Master, for making the Mens Clothing & other Necessarys furnished them, & if there are any errors in Said Account, to furnish the Quarter Master with an Account of them in Writing Immediately.
-28th. P. Fort Erie. C. Detroit. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 Pri. men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day.
-29th. P. Barnet. C. Hatfield. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. the Commission'd Non Commis'd officers & Private men of the Kings Royal Regt'ment of New York to be under arms the 31st of March, Monday Next at Capt Dalys Quarters.
-30th. P.London. C.Middlesex. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Lieut, Singleton officer of the Day.
-31st. P. Limerick. C. Clonmell. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & loPt. men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day.

1777 APRIL 1st. P. Gray. C. Johnson. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-2d. P. Kinsbridge. C. Howe. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt men. Ens Wall Officer of the Day.
-3d. P. Honduras. C. Goree. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. men. Ens Crawford Officer of the Day.
-4th. P. Eraser. C. Phillips. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Lieut. Singleton Officer of the Day.
-5th. P. Montreal. C. Lachine. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men. Ens. Byrne Officer of the Day.
-6th. P. Glasgow. C. Aberdeen. For Guard to morrow 1Sergt. & 10 Pt men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-7th. P. Bristol. C. York. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt. men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day.
-8th. P. Wells. C. Lynn. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. 10 Pt. men. Ens Crawfbrd officer of the Day. It is the Commanding Officers Orders that the two Companys Cantoon'd at Lachine Shall be Under Arms to morrow Morning At eleven o'clock at the Commanding Officers Quarters.
-9th. P. Norfolk. C. Suffolk. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Pt men. Lieut. Morrison Officer of the Day. A Review of Arms Accourtrements and Necessaries on friday at Eleven O'Clock as the Major desires that the men from St. Anns Under the Command of Capt. Brown be sent to their Companys that they be Provided in time with Necessaries to take the field when ordered, & Capt. Brown to take the Light Infantry Comp'ny, which he is to Compleat Immediately from the Battalion: the old men from Capt. Watt's(1) Compy change their coats with

(1) Captain Stephen Watts, brother-in-law of Sir John Johnson and fourth son of Hon. John Watts and Ann de Lancey, was born in New York, Dec. 24th, 1754. As an officer in Johnson's Royal Greens, he was present at the battle of Oriskany, in which action "he was severely wounded and left on the field, as was supposed, among the slain. His death was reported by Col. Willett in his letter to Col. Trumbull, and by other authorities. Such, however, was not the fact. Reviving from faintness produced by loss of blood, some time after the action, he succeeded in crawling to a brook (Oriskany creek) where, by slaking his thirst, he was preserved from speedy death; and in the course of two or three days was found by some Indian scouts, and brought into St. Leger's camp."

The above statement was taken down from the lips of his brother, the Hon. John Watts, of New York, by the writer's father the late Col. William L. Stone, and is undoubtedly the correct version. Mrs. Bonney, however, in her Legacy of Historical Gleanings, vol. I, p. 69, gives a somewhat different account,

those from other Companys who shall come in their places; if their Coats do not Answer let the wings be taken off & given to those that come in(1) ; Cap't. Brown to fix that as he thinks fit. Lieut. Morrison to change off the Colonel's Compy; Lt. Singleton off the Majors & Lt. McDonold off Capt. McDonolds Comp'y, that they may be no farther Disputes In Regard to the Officers Ranks; & Left by Sir John a list of them to be seen. According to their Ranks from the Adjutant in the Regimental Book.
-l0th P. Perth Amboy. C. Elizabeth Town. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. and 10 Private men. Ens Burn Officer of the Day.

so far, at least, as relates to the manner of Watt's escape, which is as follows: "Major Watts [his rank at this time, as I have observed in my Introduction, was captain] was wounded through the leg by a ball, and in the neck by a thrust from a bayonet which passed through the back of the windpipe, and occasioned such an effusion of blood as to induce not only him but his captors to suppose (after leading him two or three miles) that he must die in consequence. He begged his captors to kill him, they refused and left him by the side of a stream (Oriskany creek) under the shade of a bridge, where he was found two days subsequently, covered with fly - blows, but still alive He was borne by some Indians to Schenectady where he remained (after losing his leg) until sufficiently recovered to bear a voyage to England." Soon after his arrival in England he married a Miss Nugent, and as Gen. de Peyster, his grandnephew, informs the writer, died in elegant retirement surrounded by a noble family of equally brave sons. Of these sons, one, Ross Watts, was an admiral in the British navy, another, John Watts, was a captain in the British army and was present at the capture of Washington and the battle of New Orleans, and subsequently, mayor and deputy of Wellington, as governor of Walma Castle; and still another, Robert Nugent, was secretary in Quebec and a member of assembly in the Canadian parliament. See also, the Parliamentary Register for Watts's conduct at Oriskany.

(1) " 'Wings,' as connected with uniforms, were once worn as a substitute for epaulettes , certainly, during the revolution in the English service. They were of cloth ; in shape, similar to the strap of the epaulette , and terminated at the end with a gold or silver fringe for officers, and of coarser materials for lower grades. They are sometimes seen in old pictures, and officers of long service have a dim sort of recollection that they were formerly worn in the United States service." Gen. de Peyster to the author.

-11th. P. Phillips. C. Fraser. For Guard to morrow 10 Privates, 1 Sergt. Ens Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-12th. P. London. C. Edinburgh. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. 10 Private men. Officer of the Day, Ensign Wall. The Commisson'd, Non Commisson'd Officers and Men of the King's Royal Regt. of New York to be Under Arms to morrow morning at 7 o'Clock.
-13th. P. Dornoch. C. Dunrobin. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P Ens Crawford Officer of the Day. The Private men of the King's Royal Regt. of New York to be under Arms to morrow morning at 7 o'Clock.
-14th. P. Dunmore. C. Howe. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private men. Lieut. Morrison Officer of the Day.
-15th. P. Johnson. C. Tryon. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt and 10 Private men. Ens Burn, Officer of the Day. Its the Commanding Officers Orders that the Compy's Cantoon'd at Lachine Shall be Under Arms to morrow Morning at Nine O'Clock ; the Non Commission'd Officers to See that the men Are Clean, and their Arms in Good Order; they are to Parade at the Commanding Officers Quarters.
-16th, P. Inverness. C. Nairn. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Priv. men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-17th.-P.York. C.Albany. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pt. men.
Officer of the Day.
-18th. P. Baton. C. Hingham. For Guard to morrow 1 sergt. & 10 Pt. men. Ens Crawford officer of the Day.
-19t.h. P. Dublin. C. Cork. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt and ten Private men. Lieut. Morrison Officer of the Day.
-20th P. Bristol. C. Barth. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt and 10 P men. Ens Burn, Officer of the Day.
-21 st. P. Lincolnshire. C. Cambridgeshire. For Guard to morrow, 1 Sergt. and 10 Private men. Ens Crothers Officer of the Day.
-22d. P. Niagara, C. Oswagoachey.(1) For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. 10 Private men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day.
-23d. P.Derby. C.. Clonmell. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day the Commis'd Non Commiss'd officers. Drums & Privits, men of the Kings Royal Regt. of New York, to Hold themselves In Readiness to March to Point Clair on Saturday Morning 26th of April. They are to Parade at the Commanding Officer's Quarters at 7 o'clock.

(1) Oswegatchie (now Ogdensburgh, N. Y.), in 1740 known as Fort Presentation and sometimes La Gallette. It was garrisoned by the French during a part ot the seven years war, but was taken by the English in 1700, while they were descending the St. Lawrence to attack Montreal. Tradition locates one of Gen. Putnam's most daring exploits at this fort.

-24th. P. London. C. York. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P. men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day.
-25th. P. Bristol. C. Barth. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P. men. Ens Byrne Officer of the Day.
-26th. P. Boston. C. Norwich. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P men. Ens. Crothers, Officer of the Day.
-27th. P. Hingham. C. Dearham. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt and 10 Private men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day.
-28th. P. Norfolk. C. Suffolk. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 P men. Ens. Crawford, Officer of the Day.
-29th. P. Dover. C. Plymouth. For Guard to morrow, 1 Sergt. & 10 Priv. men. Leaut. Morrison, Officer of the Day.
-30th. P. Ireland. C. Scotland. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pri. men. Ens. Byrne Officer of the Day.

1777 MAY, 1ST. P. Quebec. C. Orleans. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Priv. men. Ens. Crothers, Officer of the Day. the Commiss'd Non Commiss'd officers. Drummers, & private men of the Kings Royal Regt. of New York to hold themselves in Readiness to March to Point Clair to morrow Morning at 7 o'clock; thay are to Parade at the Commanding Officers Quarters at La Chine.
-2d. P. Halifax. C. Boston. For Guard tomorrow 1 Sergt & 10 men. Ens Wall officer of the Day.
-3d. P. Belfast. C. Dublin. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. it is the Commanding officers orders that all the officers for the future to Exercise their own Companys.
-4th. P. Cork. C. Dublin. For Guard to morrow, 1 Sergt & 10 P. men. Lieut. Morrison, Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officers orders that two men from each Company be ordered to attend the ammunition tomorrow at 8 o'clock in the morning, & also that the old men who are incapable to exercise attend for the same purpose.
-5th. P. America. C. England. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt, & 10 P men. Lieut. Walker, Officer of the Day.
-6th. P. Montreal. C. Lachine. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 10 Priv. men. Ens Byrne, Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officers orders that two men from each Company attend constantly every fair day at 8 o'clock in the morning in order to air the ammunition ; also that the old men, who are incapable of learning the exercise, attend for the same purpose with a Non Commissioned officer.
-7th. P. New York. C. Amboy. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Priv. men. Ens. Crothers, officer of the Day.
-8th. P. Guadaloupe. C. Lewisburgh. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private men. Ens Wall, officer of the Day.
-9th. P. Hanover. C. Hamburg. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt, 10 Private men. Ens Crawford, officer of the Day. It is the commanding officer's orders that the Commiss'd Non Commiss'd officers Drumers & Privets March to Point Clair to morrow Morning at 8 o'clock, if the Weather Permits; thay are to Parade at the Commanding officers Quarters.
-10th. P. Bristol. C. York. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Private men. Lieut. Morrison officer of the Day.
-11th. P. Fraser. C. Phillips. For Guard to morrow 1& 10 Private men. Ens Byrne officer of the Day.
-12th. P. Edinburgh. C'. Lieth. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Privt men. Ens. Crothers officer of the Day.
-13th. P. Crownpoint. C. Tyconderoga. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Privt men. Ens Wall, officer of the Day.
-14th. P. Fort William. C. Fort George. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Privts. Lieut. Walker, officer of the Day. The Commission'd Non Commiss'd officers, Drum'rs, & Private men of the Kings Royal Regt. of New York to March to Point Clair to morrow Morning at 7 o'clock. They will Parade at the Commanding officers Quarters.
-15th. P. Tyron. C. Howe. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Pr. men. Ens Byrne, officer of the Day. It being Reported to the Commanding Officer [St. Legeri that Several of the Soldiers make a practice of Gunning with their Regimental Fire Locks, he Desires for the future to say any Soldier who shall be guilty of Using their Arms to that purpose, if they shall, they may Depend they will be punished as the Martial Law Directs.
-16th. P. Quebec. C. Dover. For Guard to morrow, (1) 1 Sergt & 10 Pr. men. Ens. Crothers, Officer of the Day. The Regt. are to keep themselves in Readiness to March at a Days Warning; the Trowsers & Every thing else to be Ready on Saturday Next: the whole of the Taylors of the Regt. to be kept at Work & free from Duty till then for that purpose-Jessup's Corps' to see that thay are

(1) Jessup's Corps, or Jessup's Battalion, the names are used interchangeably, or the officers that composed it, with the men that went from New York with them in the fall of 1776 to Canada, were ordered to Sir John Johnson's regiment merely for convenience in drawing rations, clothing, etc., before the expeditions of Burgoyne and St. Leger started. "The corps were regarded by Sir Guy Carleton," writes Gen. Rogers, "rather as refugees than as soldiers, though they wished to

Ready in Case of Orders for their Marching, & to have their Clothing Ready according to the Above Orders for the Regt.-Corp. Edward Egnue of Capt. Brown's Compy having Recei'd his Sentence of the General Court Martial is now Reduced to Serve in the Ranks as a Private Soldier.

be regarded as soldiers ; and finally, in the spring of 1777, a corps was raised known as ' Jessup's Corps'. Before that Sir Guy called them " Jessup's party," and very strongly criticized the use of the term 'corps.' " As long as they were with Sir John, receiving pay as soldiers, he treated them as such, notwithstanding Sir Guy's hairsplitting in regard to them. The 34th entered at Quebec, Sir John's regiment at La Chine, Pointe Claire. etc., and Jessup's corps or party was with the latter. Thus they continued until spring, Sir John on May 16th, commanding that " Jessup's corps to see that they are ready in case of orders for their marching " until finally, as mentioned in a previous note, they left, June 16th, to join Burgoyne's army. After this expedition, and indeed, until the close of the war, the Jessup brothers were actively engaged in the bitter partisan warfare which was such a feature of those times ; and accordingly we find the younger brother, Major Jessup, in the spring of 1781, preparing to head a party from Point au Fez against Palmerstown near the present village of Saratoga Springs. David Jones, so famous as the betrothed lover of the unfortunate Jane McCrea, held a commission in this corps, as did also his brother Daniel. The "Big Fall," on the Hudson river about ten miles above Glen's Falls, where the entire volume of water pours over a sheer descent of nearly seventy feet, is named "Jessup's Big Falls," after the commander of this corps. " Above the fall is what is called 'the race' where, for a distance of about three hundred yards, the river runs down a sharp decline, gathering strength and impetus for the final leap. Still higher up, is a gorge in the rocks where the river finds passage in a cleft about fourteen feet wide. Here legend says that Jessup jumped across the river and made his escape at the outbreak of the revolution from the sheriff of Albany county." There is also another tradition connected with this romantic river and St. Leger's expedition. Some five miles above the scene of Jessup's feat, near the mouth of the Sacandaga, and where now is the pleasant hamlet of Lazerne, the Hudson, rushing through a narrow gorge between high and rocky cliffs, forms what are called 'Jessup's Little Falls." At this spot the river is barely twelve feet wide; and the story goes that, in 1777, a British scout was endeavoring to find his way down the Sacandaga to communicate to Burgoyne the fact of the defeat of St. Leger before the walls of Fort Stanwix. As he approached this spot, he was waylaid by a party of patriots who had followed up his trail, when, to save his life, he rushed down the rocky bank, leaped the river at a bound, and clambering up the rocky bank, escaped. His baffled pursuers sent after him a few shots, but without effect. " After the revolution," says Col. B. C. Butler of Luzerne, N. Y., " Ebenezer and Edward Jessup, who were large and successful speculators in wild lands, and who had previously bought this particular tract from the Mohawks, settled at the

The Regt. & other Partys, Under the Command of Major Gray, are to be Under Arms Saturday Next at the Usual Place of Exercise at the Bay if the Weather Permits.
-l7th. P. Langford. C. Lunsbansborogh. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Priv. men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day.
-18th. P. Chester. C. Newport. Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 10 Privet Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day.
-19th. P. Stirling. C. Perth, for tomorrow one Sergt and 10 private men. Walker, officer of the Day.
-20th. P. London. C. Edinburgh. Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 8 Priv. men. Byrne, Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officers orders that the Volunteers who have joined the Companies to which they belonge are to Mount Guard In their Proper Turn.

'Big Falls,' where, for several years, they did a large and thriving business in lumber. They also built a road from Fort Miller, across the plain and around the foot of Mt. McGregor (near Saratoga Springs), to the present hamlet of Luzerne. The ' Big Falls' was also called 'Jessup's Landing,' from the fact that the lumber rafts from the Sacandaga, Hudson and Schroon rivers, on their way to market, were landed here, drawn by teams around the 'Big Falls,' and then reshipped for Glen's Falls."This statement of Col. Butler, however, is hardly probable, as both the Jessups were included in the New York Act of Attainder and could scarcely have lived in New York after the revolution; besides which Gen. Rogers, a very high authority, writes that he has positive proof that at least one of the brothers, Edward, lived in Canada after the war until his death. Edward Jessup was present as one of the chief mourners at the funeral of Sir William Johnson to whom he was greatly attached. Holden's History of the Town of Queensbury; Stone's Life of Brant; N. B. Sylvester.

-21 st. P. Dublin. C. London. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 8 men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day.
-22d. P. Templar. C. Preston. For Guard to morrow1 Sergt. & 8 Priv. men. Ens Wall Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officer's orders that the Commisson'd Non Commisson.'d officers & Soldiers of the King's Royal Regt. of New York to be Under arms this Evening at the Usual Place of Exercise at four o'clock ; the Non Commission'd officers are to see that the mens arms are in Duty order; their Regti's Clean; their Regt'l hats well Cocked, & their hair Properly Dressed, So as to appear Decent Saturday Next at the Review.
-23d. P. Greenock. C. Paisley. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt & 8 Priv. men. Ens Crawford, Officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officers orders the Commisson'd Non Commissined officers, Drumers & Privts of the King's Royal Regt of New York to be Under arms for Exercise to morrow Morning at 7 o'clock.
--24th. P. Walker. C. Lipscomb. For Guard to morrow, 1 Sergt. & 8 men. Ens Crothers officer of the Day. It is the Commanding officers orders that the two Companys Cantoon'd at Lachine hold themselves in Readiness to March to Point Clair on monday Next at 6 o'clock in the morning; the officers to be Careful that the mens arms, ammunition, accoutrements and necessaries are in good order on Tuesday Morning next at the genl Review. The Commissioned Non Commissioned officers. Drums, and private men to [meet at] roll calling tomorrow morning at Nine o'clock at the Commanding officers Quarters & to Receive the Deficency of the Cartridges.
-25th. P. Inverness. C. Darnock. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. & 6 private men. Ens Wall, Officer of the Day. The Commissioned, Non Commiss'ed officers, Drummers & Private men to appear at 6 o'clock to morrow Morning at the Commanding officers Quarters in Uniforms with their Arms [and] accoutrements necessary.

1777, MAY 26th. Parole, Aberdeen. Countersign, Inverness. For Guard to morrow Lt.

(1) Three leagues from La Chine (16 miles from Montreal) is POINTS CLAIRE, now a post-village. It contains from 200 to 300 houses, built with regularity, and forming small streets that cross the main road at right angles. There is a neat parish church, a parsonage house, and one or two tolerably good houses to receive strangers. The surrounding scenery is attractive, and it is surrounded by gardens and orchards. The houses in these Canadian villages are all built of mud and small boulders, or paving stones, generally one story high, and with doors divided in the middle transversely. The lower part being shut to keep the children in, and the upper being open, the women lean out and talk to each other across the street, in the most primitive style imaginable.

McKenzie, 1 Sergt. 1 Corpl. 1 Drum and 12 Private men. Its the Commanding officers orders that all the
Regt. get their Arms and Cloathing Clean and in
good order, and appear Under Arms to morrow morning at Seven o'clock on the field as they are to be Reviewed by the Geni - the officers commanding Comp's, to give in an Exact field Return to the Adjt. to morrow at Seven o'clock. The Officers Commanding Companys to give a Return of what Camp Kettles they have in charge and of what they want to Compleat at a Kettle to Six Men- the Return to be given in to the Quartermaster this Evening at 4 o'clock ; the officers will give particular orders to their Men to do no Damage to the Barns where they are Lodged, and be very Carefull of fire, and Particularly not to smoke in the Barns; any of the Soldiers that is found Guilty of Meddling with any of the Inhabitants Effects may Depend on Being Punished According to the Martial Law.(1) The sick men that are Quartered in the Country are to be Removed to the Village that they may be Convenient to the Doctor. An Officer of Each Compy to Attend this Evening at 4 o'Clock and Receive what Arms they want to Compleat their Comp'nys.

(1) It is evident that St. Leger, notwithstanding the supercilliousness with which he affected to treat the enemy, acknowledged, in his own mind, the necessity both of conciliating the inhabitants, and of doing nothing which would prejudice them against the royal cause.

-27th. P. St. Leger. C. Ireland. For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt. 1 Corporal, 1 Drum, and 11 Private Men. Leut. McDonnel Officer of the Day. The Commission'd officers and Non Commission'd. Drums and Private Men of the Kings Royal Regt. of New York to be Under arms to morrow morning at 7 o'clock for Exercise; Jessup's Corps are to be at Point Clair to be Exercised till Further orders.
-28th. P. Carleton. C. Burgoyne. For Guard to morrow Lieut. Walker 1 Sergt. 1 C. 1 D. 11 Pr. Its the commanding officers Orders that the officers Commanding Companys give in a Return this Evening at 4 o'clock to the Qur Master of what Cloathing they want to Compleat thair Compys & that the Men Attend to morrow morning at 8 o'clock at the Taylors Shop to have their Measures taken. The Officers Commanding Compys to give in thair Monthly Return to the Commanding officer to morrow morning at 9 o'clock. The Regt to be Under Arms to morrow morning at 7 o'clock for Exercise. Its the Commanding [officer's] orders that Thomas Miller & John Palmer be Appointed Corpls in Capt Brown's Compy, and James Plant Appointed in Capt. Daleys Compy. in the room of Corporal McGrigar who is transferred to Capt Browns Compy. Francis Albrant soldier in the Colls Compy to attend the Qur Master and Do no Other Duty for the future.
-29th. P. Phillips. C. Frazer. For Guard to morrow Ens Crothers 1 S. 1 C. 1 Drummer and 12 Privat men. The Officers Commanding Companys to See that the taylors keep steady at the Cloathing till finished, no Excuse to be taken : the Regt to be under Arms at 6 o'clock Every morning while the weather is Good; and in the afternoon firing Ball.
-30th. P. Johnson. C. Watts. For Guard to morrow Ens Crawford 1 Sergt 1 Corpi 1 Drummer & 12 Private men. The Commanding Officer Desires that officers Would be more Particular in Giving the Monthly Returns-Field Returns, Morning Reports, Reports of the Sick, or any other Returns that may be Wanted Relative to Military Duty & that they Would furnish themselves with a Copy of the Different Returns that they may have occasion for: the Regt to hold themselves in Readiness to March to Lachine at an hours Warning.
-31st. P. Col. McLean. C. Majr. Small(1). For

(1) Selected in honor of Major (afterwards Colonel) Small, a British officer in the Southern department, who, in marked contrast to the cruelties enacted by the English officers generally, showed great kindness to the American prisoners. Indeed, such was the known character of Col. Small, that a billet presented by him was regarded as a distinguished mark of favor j security from insult and from any species of imposition being inseparable from his presence."What," exclaims

Guard to morrow Ens Phillips 1 Sergt 1 Corpl 1 Drum & 12 Private men The Regt to March to La Chine to morrow Morning at 6 o'clock-the Officers & Men to carry no more Necessarys with them than what they want for 9 or ten Days to Shift themselves with, what Baggage the men Leave behind to be put in the Store this Evening at 4 o'clock; & every Compy's Baggage by itself-the Quarter Master Sergt to see that there is Cloathing taken for the use of the Recruits which the Taylors are to make at Lachine ; what Cloathing is finished to be Given Out to the Recruits; & Sergt Hillyer to pack up what is not finish'd to be Carri'd along to Morrow, 1 S 1 C & 12 Old Men to be left behind as Guard for the Stores & to Attend

Garden, "must have been the delightful sensations of his heart, who, idolized by his own troops, saw himself, at the same time, coveted as a friend and reverenced as a protector by the helpless families of the enemy with whom he contended! The sympathies of his benevolence shielded them from harm, and was repaid with ten-fold gratitude. He assuaged their sufferings and relieved their wants, and every prayer which they offered to Heaven, was mingled with ardent solicitations for blessings on his head." So heartily was this humane conduct appreciated by Gen. Green, that, towards the close of the war, he visited, under a flag of truce, that general by the latter's cordial invitation, the visit being free from every restriction. After the war, Col. Small meeting Garden in London, told him the following anecdote in these words "I have been sitting this morning to Col. Trurn bull for my portrait, he having done me the honor to place me in a very conspicuous situation in his admirable representation of the battle of Bunker hill. He has exhibited me as turning aside the bayonet aimed by a grenadier at the breast of Gen. Warren. I would certainly have saved his life if it had been in my power to do so, but when I reached the spot on which his body lay, the spark of life was already extinguished. It would have been a tribute due to his virtues and to his gallantry, and to me a sacred duty, since I am well apprised, that when, at a particular period of the action, I was left alone and exposed to the fire of the whole American line, my old friend Putnam saved my life by calling aloud ( kill as many as you can, but spare Small,' and that he actually turned aside muskets that were aimed for my destruction,"

the Sick. Surgeons Mate to Remain in Point Clair to take Care of the Sick untill further Orders-the Regt not to fire Ball this After noon. A Cart will attend Each Company to Carry the Officers Baggage & the Men's Provisions. Compy Duty for Gd. 2 Privates.


1777 June 1st. P. [---] C. [---] For Guard to morrow 1 Sergt, 1 Corpl 12 P men. Lieut McKenzie Officer of the day. The Officers to Attend Roll call every Even-ing and morning and make the Report to the Commanding Officer. They are to take particular Care that the men shall not be straying from their Quarters: the Regt to be under arms at 6 o'clock to Morrow morning: the Taylors to begin Directly to work at the men's Cloathing and to keep Close at them till they are finished; they are to work in Mr. Pridones Garret.
-2d. P. New York. The guards to be mounted every morning at 7 o'clock-rolls to be cali'd twice every Day; in the morning after guard mounting and in the evening after retreat beating at 7 o'clock-All officers to attend at the head of their Company- all beats to be taken from the 34th Regt-the troops to be exercised 3 times a day for an hour each time-the commanding officers will observe the kind of Discipline laid down by Colonel St. Leger(1). The kings royal regiment of New York to Fire balls by Divisions till Further orders-the hours of exercise will be half after 4 in the morning, at mid Day and at half past 5 in the evening-it is understood that the mid Day exercise is to be For the guard men only for whom some shady place will be chosen by the Commanding officer-a weekly state of the Different corps to be given in every monday morning to lieutenant Crofts. For the future a subalterns guard to be mounted consisting of one subaltern

(1) Barry St. Leger entered the regular army on the 27th of April, 1756, as ensign of the 28th regiment of Foot, and coming to America the following year, he served in the French war, learning the habits of the Indians and gaining much experience in border warfare. That he profited by this early training is evident from the fact that when he was chosen by George III (at Burgoyne's recommendation) to be the leader of the expedition against Fort Stanwix, he justified their confidence in his advance from Oswego by his precautions, as shown by the orders given from day to day in this Orderly Book, by his stratagem at Oriskany, and by his general conduct of the siege of Fort Stanwix up to the panic produced by the rumor of the approach of Arnold which forced him to raise it. Indeed, as Hon. Ellis H. Roberts says in his admirable address at the Oriskany Centennial, "that he was a wise commander, fitted for border warfare, his order of march bespeaks him."

After his unfortunate expedition against Fort Stanwix, he was promoted in Nov., 1780, to colonel in the army, the highest rank he ever attained , and commanding scouts and rangers on the northern frontier, under the immediate command of General Haldimand, then lieutenant governor of Canada, he occasionally carried on a guerilla warfare, his headquarters being at Montreal. It was he, who, in the summer of 1781, proposed the plan for the capture of Gen. Schuyler which, however, failed in its object. In the autumn of the same year (1781) St. Leger, in obedience to the orders of Haidimand, who was anxious to persuade Vermont to throw herself into the arms of her legitimate sovereign, ascended Lake Champlain, with a strong force to Ticonderoga, when he rested in the expectation of meeting the Vermont commissioners Ira Alien and Joseph Fay, meanwhile a rumor of the capture of Cornwallis and his army at Yorktown was wafted along upon the southern breeze, the effect of which was such upon the people, as to induce Allen and Fay to write to the British commissioners with St. Leger, that it would be imprudent at that particular conjuncture for him to promulgate the royal proclamation, and urging delay to a more auspicious moment. The messenger with these dispatches had not been longer than an hour at the headquarters of St. Leger at Ticonderoga, before the rumor respecting Cornwallis was confirmed by

one sergeant one Corporal 1 Drummer and 18 privates. The 34th regt to furnish to morrow 1 subaltern 1 corporal 1 Drummer and 5 privates; the King's royal regt of New York and Jessup's Corps to Furnish i sergeant and 13 private men.
-3d. P. Johnstown. A Strict and Punctual Adherence to all orders Given, is the life and soul of Military Operations; without it Troops, are but confus'd & ungovernable multitudes ever liable to Destruction & sure never to acquire honour to themselves or gain advantage to their Country : therefore Col. St Leger Acquaints the Troops he has the Honour to Command, that the few Necessary Orders he means to give Must

an express. The effect was prodigious. All ideas of farther operations in that quarter were instantly abandoned ; and before evening of the same day, St. Leger's troops and stores were re-embarked, and with a fair wind he made sail immediately, back to St. John's.

St. Leger possessed decided literary and scholastic talent, as is abundantly proved both by his letters to Burgoyne and the British Ministry and by his book which he afterwards published entitled "St. Leger's Journal of Occurrences in America." We do not, however, quite agree with Mr. Roberts when he says that St. Leger was prompt, tenacious, fertile in resources and attentive to detail." He certainly made a most undignified retreat, and has moreover, been accused by his subaltern officers of a want of energy, Campbell, also, who was an industrious as well as a careful and painstaking historian, and had many conversations with those who knew St. Leger and in other ways, had ample facilities for verifying his facts, writes, that St. Leger was in a state of intoxication during most of the time his forces lay before the fort. His lack of judgment is also clearly demonstrated by Col. Claus in his letter to the Secretary (see note on Claus in advance). O'Callaghan, speaking of St. Leger, says, that when he died, in 1789, he had acquired no distinction in his profession, and rather intimates that this was singular. It does not, however, appear to us singular if the statement of his intemperate habits is correct. But although he was evidently a polished gentleman and an accomplished scholar, his encouragement of Tory and Indian atrocities while on this expedition, such as offering in general orders $2o for every American scalp, which cannot be denied, fully justifies the phillipic of Arnold when he characterized him as little better than a barbarian. In this connection however, it is but justice to state that many of the British

Instantly and privately [be] attended to without Discretionary Interpretations whatsoever. A Detail of the Guard for to Morrow. 34 Regt, 1 C. 1 Drum. & 6 Privates: Kings Royal Regt N. York, 1 Subaltern 1 Sergt & 12 Private. Regt orders, for Guard to Morrow Ens Mc Kenzie.

officers did not approve of the cold-blood villainies of the Indians and Tories (Tories should have been named first, for they often excelled the Indians in bloodthirstiness and did things at which the latter, even recoiled in horror). General Carleton (Lord Dorchester), General Haldimand and even Burgoyne were among this number, and Haldimand, indeed, went so far as to refuse to see Walter Butler when after the Cherry Valley massacre he went to Quebec.

It will be observed that for the purposes of the expedition against Fort Stanwix, St. Leger received, as mentioned in the text, the local rank of brigadier. To explain this, which has given so much trouble to all historians from Dr. Gordon down to Col. Stone and Judge Campbell, it is only necessary to state that the British service recognized a number of military commissions which are unknown in others, among them "acting," "territorial" and "local." For instance, in the cases of Carleton and Clinton, they were full generals in America, but only lieutenant generals elsewhere. This explains how Ferguson is variously known as line major, brevet colonel and territorial brigadier general for the command of militia. This also explains why so many officers of this expedition have at different times such various ranks, as for instance, McLean, Rouville, Gray, etc. ~~Gen. J. Watts dePeyster; Knox; O'Callaghan; Ed.

By the courtesy of Gen. Horatio Rogers, of Providence, R. I., we append to the above sketch, the following notice of St. Leger, which will appear as a note to Gen. Rogers's Hadden's Journal soon to be published. Gen. Rogers says;

"Barry St. Leger, a nephew of the fourth Viscount Doneraile, was of Huguenot descent, and was born in or about the year 1737. He entered the British military service as an ensign in the 28th Foot, April 27, 1756, and the next year accompanied his regiment to America where it served under Gen. Abercrombie. He seems to have been allowed to jump the grade of lieutenant, and he was promoted to a captaincy in the 48th Foot, then likewise in America, March 24th, 1758. He participated in the siege and capture of Louisburg in 1758, and accompanied Wolfe to (Quebec in 1759, participating in the battle on the Heights of Abraham. The last order, given by the dying Wolfe was, 'Go, one of you, my lads to Colonel Burton, tell him to march Webb's regiment' (the 48th) 'with all speed to Charles's river to cut off the retreat of the fugitives from the bridge.' St.. Leger, who was in Webb's regiment, behaved gallantly near the bridge in checking the flight of the French, and was slightly wounded. In July, 1760, he was appointed brigade major preparatory to marching to Montreal, and he became major of the 95th Foot, August 16th, 1762- Upon that regiment's being reduced at the peace of 1763 he went upon half-pay. He became a lieutenant colonel in the army, May 25th, 1772, and the lieutenant colonel of the 34th Foot, May 20th, 1775.

-4th. P. King George. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow; 34th Regt 1Corpl 1 Drumr & 6 Pr. Kings Royal Regt of New York 1 Sergt and 12 privates. Regt Orders for Guard to Morrow Ens Crawford.
-5th. P. Burgoyne. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow, 34th Regt 1 C. 1 D. 7 P.; R.Yorkers 1 S. 12 P.; Jessup's Corps 1 L. 1 C. 7 P. Total 1 L. 1 8. 2 C. i1 D. 26 P.
-6th June. P. Gray. C. Ancrum. Every

"The Annual Register for 1773, under date of April 7th, contains a notice of the marriage of "Lieutenant Colonel Barry St. Leger, nephew of the late Lord Viscount Doneraile, and fellow of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, to Lady Mansel, widow of Sir Edward Mansel, of Trinsaran, South Wales."

"In the spring of 1776 his regiment formed a part of the reinforcement sent over to Sir Guy Carleton, and he accompanied it to Canada. He took part in Sir Guy's operations in 1776, and the next year, acting as a brigadier, he led the force which was intended to move from Oswego by the way of Oneida Lake and Wood creek to the Mohawk, thence down the river to Albany, where a junction was to be effected with Burgoyne. The termination of the affair, so unfortunate for its commander, is well known. His report to Gen. Burgoyne of his operations before Fort Stanwix, or Schuyler, dated Oswego, August 27th, 1777, is to be found in the appendix of the State of the Expedition.

"Sir Guy Carleton evidently thought St. Leger lacking in vigor in disciplining his troops, as shown by the former's letter to Gen. McLean, which is as follows :
QUEBEC, 24th July, 1777.
* * Lieut. Col. St. Leger may be informed that he ought to have seized and sent down here in irons those Canadians whom he mentions having held such conversations to, and occasioned the desertion of, Capt. Rouville's company, Two men for each deserter are to be demanded, upon pain of military execution, from the parishes to which the deserters belong; and the captains of militia are to be enjoined to find the deserters themselves, and safely conduct them to where you shall direct, in order to their being sent prisoners to the companies from which they deserted, there to be tried and punished.'

"September 23d, 1777, St. Leger's force was sent to Ticonderoga to be subject to Gen. Burgoyne's orders, but, as communication with Burgoyne was interrupted, St. Leger did not proceed south of Ticonderoga, and when that fortress was abandoned in November of that year, he returned to Canada. He became a colonel in the army November 17th, 1780, and a brigadier general in the army in Canada, October 21st, 1782, his command consisting of the troops 'on the

Soldier off Duty or Regt work must be under Arms at the times appointed Except those notyfy'd by the Surgeon as too ill to appear-the want of any part of their Necessarys will not be admitted as an Excuse. Coll: St. Ledger thinks proper to observe to the Kings Royal Regt of New York, That the Surest Method of Making the Noble & honorable zeal they have Lately manifested to their King and Countrys interest

Island of Montreal, Isle of Jesus, Miller Island as far as Couteau du Lac upon the north, and from thence to La Prairie exclusive on the south side of the river St. Lawrence.' He was commandant of his Majesty's forces in Canada in the autumn of 1784, and his name appears in the army lists for the last time in 1785. Wm. C. Bryant, in the American Historical Record for 1874, p. 435, says he died in 1789, when he was a little "past fifty years of age.

"It is not easy from the data that have come down to us to form a clear idea of St. Leger's character. His letter to Gen. Schuyler, dated November 7th, 1781, in reference to some of the latter's silver that had been plundered by a British scouting party, does not reflect upon St. Leger discreditably, but his duplicity in trying to induce the garrison of Fort Schuyler to surrender, cannot legitimately be included under the term, military strategy, and his message holding out the terrors of unrestrained savage allies was so barbarous that Col. Willett characterized it as 'a degrading one for a British officer to send, and by no means reputable for a British officer to carry.' The testimony of Squire Ferris, likewise, who was an American prisoner in Canada in the spring of 1779, is of the most unflattering description. Speaking of a party of fellow prisoners who had attempted to escape, Ferris says, 'for four days before they were retaken, they had nothing for food but tea, and were so weak they could hardly walk. The forces at St. John's were commanded by Col. St. Leger, a brutal drunkard, who ordered the prisoners to be ironed together, and put them in a dungeon for fourteen days, at the end of which time, and ironed hand in hand to each other, they were sent to Chamblee, and from there by the rivers Sorel and St. Lawrence to Quebec.'

"Authorities: Army Lists; Stone's Burgoyne's Campaign and St. Leger's Expedition; New York Colonial Hist. Doc., viii, 714 ; Annual Register for 1773, p. 160, Swift's History of Middlebury, Vt., p. 92, Quebec Gazette, Nov. 25, 1784, Haldiman's Papers, Register of Letters from Sir G. Carleton, 1776-1778, Vol. 11, p. 24; Idem, General Orders by Sir Guy Carleton and Gen. Haldimand, 177 6-178 3, p. 208, Idem, Register of Letters from Sir Guy Carleton to various persons, 1776-1778, Vol. i, p. 627 , Magazine of American History, vi, p. 289 , Narrative of the Military Actions of Colonel Marinus Willett,"

Upon St. Leger's return home after the war, he was stationed for a time in Dublin, where he seems to have led a rollicking kind of life with a few choice spirits like himself. One of his adventures during his stay in that city is given (as illustrative of this period of his life) in Appendix, No. III.

take the Effect they ardently wish for, as well as to Repossess themselves of the peace & property which has been most illegaly wrested from them, is to give a Constant & unwearied attention to the learning of Military Discipline which will give them Superiority over the Confused Rabble they have to deal with." All orders Relative to the men to be read to them at the Evening Parade By an officer of each Compy. Detail of the Gd. for to morw: 34th Regt 1 C. 1 D. 5 P.; K. R. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 8 P.; Jessup's Corps 5 P. Total 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 18 P. Ens Byrne for Guard to Morrow.
-7th. P. Oswegatchie. C. Fort Stanwix. Details of the Guard for to Morrow. 34th Regt 1 C. 8 P.; Kings Royal Regt N. York 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 12 P.; Jessup's Corps 1 S. 1 C. 6 P. Total 1 L. 2 S. 2 C. 1 D. 26 P. Ens Wall for the Guard to Morrow.
-8th. P. St. Johns. C. Oneida. A Weekly

(1) St. Leger, like Clinton, and in fact, every English officer at this time except Burgoyne (after his defeat) and the good and wise Carleton, seems to have entertained a supreme contempt for his American foes. Still, Sir John Johnson, from his intercourse with his father, should have known better, since Sir William, in a letter to the Ministry, written shortly before his death, particularly warns them against entertaining the erroneous impression that the Americans were not brave and would not fight. Stone's Life of Sir Wm. Johnson.

The word "Rabble" however, appears to have been a favorite one with Sir John, notwithstanding his subsequent hard experience, since in a letter to Joseph Brant, under date of May 16th, 1787, he writes; "I must own I give little credit to the reports of the American's preparations to attack the Posts, * * but even such an attempt can only be made by the lawless rabble on the southern frontiers". British regulars, however, were never just to provincials or militia even of their own side. They gave them invariably the hardest work and no gratitude. See Stedman and de Peyster.

A Patrol must go from the Main Guard at Tattoo Beating, which is to make Prisoners of all soldiers or Non Commiss'd Officers they find in them- They are likewise to order to their Cantonments all Stragglers.

known fact substantiated by the affidavits of Moses Younglove and others, that St. Leger not only offered a reward for each scalp brought in by the Indians, but also in various other ways, encouraged cruelty among his dusky allies. There are many instances to prove this; let one or two suffice. Col. Gansevoort, writing to Gen. Schuyler from Fort Stanwix, under date of June 26th, 1777, says: "Col. Madison was killed and scalped, Capt. Gregg was shot through his back, tomahawked and scalped, and is still alive." "About noon," also says the late Col. Stone in his account of this expedition, "on the 3d of July, Col. Willett was startled by the report of musketry. Hastening to the parapet of the glacis, he saw a little girl running with a basket in her hand, while the blood was trickling down her bosom. On investigating the facts, it appeared that the girl, with two others, was picking berries, not two hundred yards from the fort, when they were fired upon by a party of Indians and two of the number killed. One of the girls killed was the daughter of an invalid, who had served many years in the British Artillery. He was entitled to a situation in the Chelsea Hospital, but had preferred rather to remain in the cultivation of a small piece of ground at Fort Stanwix, than again to cross the ocean."

The statement of Younglove, moreover that St. Leger offered a reward for scalps, bears the scamp of probability. Certainly, in the war of 1812, when the principles of humanity might be supposed to be further advanced, the British government, to put it mildly, approved, at least, of the taking of scalps by the Indians. In the manuscript history of the 16th Pennsylvania Infantry in the service of the United States during the war of 1812, commanded by Col. Cromwell Pearce, occurs this passage : "In the reports of brigade Major Charles D. Hunter and Lieutenant Hayden of the fatigue party who buried the dead at the battle of York, Upper Canada, now Toronto, made to Cromwell Pearce, colonel of the 16th U. S. Infantry, and upon whom the command devolved after the death of Gen. Zebulon M. Pike, they say : 'A human scalp was found suspended in the Legislative Hall near the speaker's chair, an emblem of the manner and spirit in which his Britannic Majesty carried on the war.' Of this and some other trophies Commodore Chauncey gave the following account in a letter to the secretary of the navy: (Sir : I have the honor to present to you, by the hands of Lieutenant Dudley, the British standard taken at York on the 27th of April last, accompanied by the mace, over which hung a human scalp. These articles were taken from the Parliament House by one of my officers and presented to me. The scalp I caused to be presented to General Dearborn, who, I believe, still has it in his possession.'" See Stewart Pearce, in the American Historical Record, vol. iii, p. 420. Before, however, dismissing this subject, the reader should, in justice to St. Leger, be referred to that officer's letter to Lieut. Bird printed in this volume just after the Orderly Book. At the same time, it may be remarked that facts prove more than general declarations on paper.

Detail of the Guard. 34th Regt 1 S. 1 D. 9 P.; K. R. Yorkers 28. 1 C. 15 P. ; Jessup's Corps 1 L. 1 C. 4 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C. 1 D. 28 P. REGT ORDERS-A Regtl Court Martial to sit to Morrow Morning at 11 o'clock, Lt. Singleton President. Members-Ens Burne, Ens McKenzie. Ens McDonell & Ens Phillips, to try such Prisoners as may be brought before them.
-l0th. P. Castle Johnson.(1) C. Fort Hunter. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow, 34th to Give 1 S. 6 P.; K. R. R. N.Y. 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 9 P.; Jessup's Corps 1 S. 3 P. Total 1 L. 1 C. 18 P. R. O. Its the Commanding Officers Positive

(1) Castle, or Fort Johnson, an old massive stone mansion on the north bank of the Mohawk, two and a-half miles west of the village of Amsterdam, N. Y., and seen by the traveler on the righthand side of the westbound train. It was built by Sir William Johnson, in 1742 (where he resided some twenty years previous to his erection of Johnson Hall at Johnstown, N. Y.), and went by the name of Fort Johnson, Castle Johnson and Mount Johnson. A writer, in giving an itinerary of the Mohawk Valley between Oswego and Albany, in 1757, thus describes Fort Johnson: "Col. [Sir William] Johnson's mansion is situate on the border of the left bank of the river Mohawk. It is three stories high; built of stone, with portholes (crenelee's) and a parapet and flanked with four bastions on which are some small guns. In the same yard, on both sides of the mansion, there are two small houses; that on the right of the entrance is a store, and that on the left is designed for workmen, Negroes and other domestics The yard-gate is a heavy swing gate well ironed ; it is on the Mohawk river side; from this gate to the river there is about 200 paces of level ground. The high road passes there [now the N. Y. Central R. R.]. A small rivulet coming from the north empties itself into the Mohawk river, about 200 paces below the enclosure of the yard. [This stream is now called 'Old Fort Creek.'] On this stream there is a mill about fifty paces distance from the house ; below the mill is the miller's house where grain and flour are stored, and on the other side of the creek 100 paces from the mill, is a barn in which cattle and fodder are kept. 150 paces from Colonel Johnson's mansion at the north side, on the left bank of the creek, is a little hill on which is a small house with portholes, where is ordinarily kept a guard of honor of some twenty men, which serves also as an advanced

orders that the Men do Not wear their shoes when they go out a fishing. G[ENERAL] AFTER ORDERS. At the Evening Exercise After the priming and loading Motions are over, the 34th and K. R. R. N. Y. will be Joined, the 34th making the Right Wing, while the others form the left. This Body will be Exercis'd by Lt Crofts of the 34th Regt.
-11th. P. [---]. C.[---]. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow. 34th Regt to give 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. 1 L. 2 S. 1 C, 14 P.; Jessup's Corp S. 5 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C, 1 D. 28 P. G. O. A field Return of each Corps to be given to Lieut Crofts whenever the Men are Under

post." The mansion is still (1882) standing, a substantial specimen of the domestic architecture of that period. A mile and one-half east of Castle Johnson is "Guy Park," long the residence of Col. Guy Johnson, the nephew and son-in-law of Sir William. Like Fort Johnson and Johnson Hall, it was often the scene of Indian conferences, among the most noted of which was a council held between the Mohawk nation and delegates from the Albany and Tryon County Committees, in May, 1775, on which occasion Little Abraham, the principal sachem of the Lower Mohawk Castle and the brother of King Hendrick, killed at the battle of Lake George in 1755, was the chief speaker. At the beginning of the public excitement in 1775 the "Park" was abandoned by Col. Guy Johnson, who accompanied by his family and a few faithful Indians, fled, by way of Oswego, to Montreal. It is yet (1882) standing (the first stone house west of Amsterdam and greatly enlarged from the original) on the banks of the Mohawk, and on the left of trains going west.

arms for the Information of the Commanding officer-Its Lieut Coll Sir John Johnsons; orders that the Commissioned, Non Commissioned officers Drummers and Private Men of the Kings Royal Regt of New York attend Exercise I Every Day for the future at the hour appointed. Ens Phillips for Guard to Morrow.
-12th. P. Sopees. [Esopus, N. Y.] C. Kenderwhoffe. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow 34th Regt to give 1 8. 5 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. 2 8. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P.; Jessup's Corps 1 L. 4 P.
Total 1 L. 2 S. 1 C. 1 D. 18 P.
-13th. P. Howe. C. Cornwallis. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow 34th Regt to give 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 P. K. R. R.N. Y. 1 L. 1 S. 1 C. 14 P.; Jessup's Corps 1 S. 5 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C. 1 D. 28 P. G[ENERAL] O[RDERS]. As Cleanliness and a "Strict Attention to Duty are Indespensable Necessaries in a Soldier, Colonel St Leger Desires the troops Under his Command may be Immediately furnished with Necessarys & Each a black Stock. -Officers must Inspect their Men Every morning, when they will correct any Man that comes Slovenly to the Parade; they will Likewise Remember that for the future he will impute to their Inattention the un-Soldier Like Parade he Observed this Morning.

-17th June 1777. G. O. Those Regments & other Departments who have not Rendered Receipts for provisions & Rum are desired to send forthwith the three Receipts of the same tenor & Date According to a form Sent for that purpose to Complete a Settlement with the Commissary Genll to the 24th of May; the troops intended to Remain in Canada & Stationed in the District of Montreal to Report [to] Brigr Geni MacLean.(1)

"Colonel Allan MacLean, of Torloish, and a warm friend of Sir John Johnson and Colonel Daniel Claus, with both of whom he frequently consulted, was, in 1747, lieutenant in the Scotch Brigade, which also went by the name of the "Dutch Brigade," from the circumstance of its being at the time in the pay of the States General. In cutting his way through the French lines at the famous siege of Bergen op Zoom, Lieutenant MacLean was taken prisoner and immediately admitted to parole by General Lowendahl, with this complimentary address: "had all conducted themselves as you and your brave corps, have done, I should not now be master of Bergen op Zoom." Having left the Dutch service he obtained a company in the 62d or First Highland Battalion on its organization in 1757. With this regiment whose number was afterwards changed to the 77th, he came to America and served under Forbes at the taking of Fort Du Quesne, in 1758, and, in the following year, was with Amherst in the expedition up the northern lakes. He raised the 114th Highland regiment in 1759, of which he was appointed major commanding, but it was reduced, in 1763, and Major Mac Lean went on half-pay. On 25 May, 1771, he became lieutenant colonel in the army, but was not again called into active service until 1775, when the scheme was concocted to raise men in America to support the royal cause. With that warrant and some followers, Col. Mac Lean came to New York in the spring of 1775; next visited Boston, where his scheme got wind , then hastened back to New York ; repaired to Col. Guy Johnson on the Mohawk river, and thence proceeded to Oswego and so to Canada,where he collected in the course of the summer, a body of men, chiefly Scotch refugees and disbanded soldiers, formerly belonging to the 42d, 77th and 78th Highlanders, under the title of the Royal Highland Emigrants." On the approach of the American army by Lake Champlain, Colonel MacLean was ordered to St. Johns with a party of militia but got only as far as St. Denis when he was deserted by his men. Quebec being next threatened by the American army under Arnold, Col. MacLean made the best of his way to that city, which he entered on the 12th November, 1775, just in time

-18th June 1777. Promotions. His Excelency the Commander in Chief has been pleased to make the following Promotions in the Army Under his Command: Royal R. N. Y. Alex. McDonald(1) to be Capt in the Room of Lieut. Brown who returned to the 31st Regt-6th June, 1777.

to prevent the citizens surrendering the place to the Americans. His conduct during the siege is mentioned in the handsomest terms. But after all his zeal, his corps was not yet recognized, though he had at the outset been promised establishment and rank for it. He therefore returned to England, where he arrived on the 1st September, 1776, to seek justice for himself and men. Returning to America, he did good service , and during the Burgoyne campaign he was often trusted by Sir Guy Carleton. This is evident from the fact that, after the failure of St. Leger's expedition, Carleton (according to the Haldimand papers) ordered McLean to take command of Lt. Col. St. Leger's corps and the 31st Regiment, together with a detachment of artillery under Lieut. Glenny to go to Brig, Gen. Powel's relief, who at last accounts, had been attacked and besieged at Ticonderoga by the American Col. Brown." The 31st and the artillery detachment were to return to Canada after the object of the errand was accomplished, but Lt. Col. St. Leger, and the rest of the troops sent, were to be subject to Gen. Burgoyne's orders. His regiment, however, were not received until the close of 1778, when the regiment, which consisted of two battalions, one in Canada and one in Nova Scotia, became the 8th Foot. In January, 1780, he was appointed colonel in the army. The Royal Highland Emigrants were disbanded in 1783 and Col. MacLean died in 1784. Callaban Army Lists; Brown's Highland Clans, iv, 242, 307, 368; Smith's Canada, II, 83 , Garneau's Canada, 2d Ed., II, 436; American Annals, 1.

(1) Alexander McDonald and the John McDonald, mentioned a line or two in advance, were Tory Roman Catholic Scotchmen, who, until the beginning of hostilities, had resided in the vicinity of Johnstown in the Mohawk Valley. Having been permitted by Gen. Schuyler to revisit their families, they, in the month of March, 1777, again ran off to Canada, taking with them the residue of the roman catholic Scotch settlers, together with some of the loyalist Germans, their former neighbors. In 1778, Alexander McDonald, who appears to have been a man of considerable enterprise and activity, collected a force of three hundred Tories and Indians, and fell with great fury upon the frontiers, the Dutch settlements of Schoharie, especially, feeling "all his barbarity and exterminating rage." One example of his cruelty and bloodthirstiness is given by Simms, in his Trappers of New York, as follows: "On the morning of October 25, 1781, a large body of the enemy under Maj. Ross, entered Johnstown with several prisoners, and not a little plunder, among which was a number of human scalps taken the afternoon and night previous, in settlements in and adjoining the Mohawk valley ; to which was added the scalp of Hugh McMonts, a constable, who was

John McDonald(1) to be Capt Lieut. in the Room of Capt Lieut Hewetson-19th June, 1777. Ens William Byrne to be Lieut in the Room of Lieut Grant-6th June, 1777. Volunteer Lipscomp to be Ens vice Byrne, Do.

surprised and killed as they entered Johnstown. In the course of the day the troops from the garrisons near and the militia from the surrounding country, rallied under the active and daring Willett, and gave the enemy battle on the Hall farm, in which the latter were finally defeated with loss, and made good their retreat into Canada. Young Scarsborough was then in the nine months' service, and while the action was going on, himself and one Crosset left the Johnstown fort, where they were on garrison duty, to join in the fight, less than two miles distant. Between the Hall and woods they soon found themselves engaged. Crosset after shooting down one or two, received a bullet through one hand, but winding a handkerchief around it he continued the fight under cover of a hemlock stump. He was shot down and killed there, and his companion surrounded and made prisoner by a party of Scotch troops commanded by Capt. McDonald. When Scarsborough was captured, Capt. McDonald was not present, but the moment he saw him he ordered his men to shoot him down. Several refused; but three, shall I call them men ? obeyed the dastardly order, and yet he possibly would have survived his wounds, had not the miscreant in authority cut him down with his own broadsword. The sword was caught in its first descent, and the valiant captain drew it out, cutting the hand nearly in two." This was the same McDonald who, in 1779, figured in the battle of the Chemung, together with Sir John and Guy Johnson and Walter N. Butler.

(1) This officer, of Sir John Johnson's regiment, was killed in the battle of Oriskany by Capt. Jacob Gardenier, an officer, who during that memorable day,performed prodigies of valor. The circumstances of his death were as follows: At the beginning of the action, Johnson's "Royal Greens" (so called, unofficially, on account of their green coats), disguised themselves as American troops and by this ruse approached very near to Herkimer's command before the trick was discovered. "Johnson's men continued to advance until hailed by Gardenier, at which moment one of his own soldiers, observing an acquaintance, and supposing him a friend, ran to meet him, and presented his hand. It was grasped, but with no friendly gripe, as the credulous fellow was dragged into the opposing line and informed that he was a prisoner. He did not yield without a struggle; during which Gardenier, watching the action and the result sprung forward, and with a blow from his spear leveled the captor to the dust and liberated his man. Others of the foe instantly set upon him, of whom he slew the second and wounded a third. Three of the disguised Greens now sprang upon him, and one of his spurs becoming entangled in their clothing, he was thrown to the ground. Still contending, however, with almost superhuman strength, both of his thighs were transfixed to the earth by the bayonets of two of his assailants, while the third presented a bayonet to his breast, as if to thrust him through. Seizing this bayonet with his left hand, by a sudden wrench he brought its owner

To Sir John Johnson or officer commdng the Royal Regt of New York.
WM DUNBAR, Majr of Brigade.(1)

1777, June 14th. P. Connecticut. C. Philadelphia. G. O. The party of Artillery Under Lieut Glennie(2) to be Reinforced Immediately by a Corpi & 20 Men from the 8th, 34th, & Kings Royal Regt of New York-8th & 34th Regt will give 5 each & the New York Regt 10-the 8th Regt will give the Corpl. Detail of the Guard for to Morrow 34 Regt 1 S. 6 P.; K. R. R. N. Y. 1 S. 2 S. 1 D. 9 P.; Jessup's Corps 1 C. 3 P. Ensn Crothers for guard to morrow.
-15th. P. Trenton. C. Burlington. Details of the Guard for to Morrow. 34th Regt 1 S. 1 C. 1 D. 9 Privates; K. R. R. N. Y. 1 L. 2 S. 1 C. 1 D. 14 Privates; Jessup's Corps, 5 Privates. G. O. A Corpl and 10 private Men with

down upon himself, where he held him as a shield against the arms of the others, until one of his own men, Adam Miller, observing the struggle, flew to his rescue as the assailants turned upon their new adversary, Gardenier rose upon his seat, and although his hand was severely lacerated by grasping the bayonet which had been drawn through it, he seized his spear lying by his side, and quick as lightning planted it to the barb in the side of the assailant with whom he had clinched. The man fell and expired, proving to be Lieutenant McDonald one of the loyalist officers, from Tryon country."-Stone's St. Leger's Expedition.
(1) This officer was captured with Gen. Prescott on the fleet while attempting to escape from Montreal to Quebec, in November, 1775.
(2) See note in advance, under Captain Rouville.

hand hatchets to go to Morrow to lower Lachine at 5 o'clock to cut boughs to Cover the Batteaux. As Coll. St. Leger wishes not to take the K. Regt of New York from their Exercise the Above Party is to be given by the Detachment of the 34th Regt. Officer of the Guard to Morrow Ens McDonell. Compy Duty Gd S. 1 C. D. 4 P.

AFTER ORDERS. Its Lieut. Colonel Sir John Johnson's orders that Capt. Lt. McDonell, Wm Byrnes & Ens Richard Lipscom do Duty in this Compy. Lieut. Morrison. Lieut. Anderson & Ens Phillips in Major Gray's Company. Lieut. James Mc Donell and Ens Allan McDonell in Capt Angus McDonell's' Compy, Lt. Kenneth McKenzie, Lt George Singleton and Ens John McKenzie in Capt. Watt's Compy, Lt. Richard Walker and Ens. Crothers in Capt. Daily's Company. Lt.

(1) Angus McDonell was taken prisoner at the battle of Oriskany, and afterwards transferred, for greater safety, to the southern portion of the state. The following is the parole which he gave to the authorities :
(2) I, Angus McDonell, lieutenant in the 60th or Royal American regiment, now a prisoner to the United States of America and enlarged on my parole, do promise upon my word of honor that I will continue within one mile of the house of Jacobus Hardenburgh, and in the town of Hurley, in the county of Ulster, and that I will not do any act, matter or thing whatsoever against the interests of America, and further, that I will remove hereafter to such place as the governor of the state of New York or the president of the Council of Safety of the said state shall direct, and that I will observe this my parole until released, exchanged or otherwise ordered.
Kingston, 12th Oct., 1777."

Whether Angus McDonell violated his parole, if indeed, he was released, we are not informed. It is, however, certain that he, as well as Allen McDonell mentioned in the text as ensign in his company, was the following year, transferred to Reading, Pa., where both were kept as hostages of Sir John Johnson. See journals of Congress for the year 1778, p. 119, 368.
Grummerfolk and Ens Craford in Capt Alexr McDonells, Lt. Moure [Moore ?], Lt Wilkeson & Ens Walle- in Capt Duncan's compy, till further orders. *

-16th. P. Newark. C. Boston. Capt Ancrum(1) is appointed to Do the Duty of Adjt Genl assisted by Lieut. Crofts, Lt. Lundy(2) Deputy Qr. Mr Genl, Mr Piety conductor of aitillery,

(1) Major Ancrum was the officer sent by Brigadier St. Leger to Col. Willett to summon the garrison to surrender. Speaking of this Col. Willett says : "The success with which the sortie from the fort was attended, added to the loss the enemy and especially the Indians had sustained in the action with General Herkimer, created considerable uneasiness in the enemy's camp. The afternoon of the next day the beating of the chamade and the appearance of a white flag was followed by a request that Col. Butler who commanded the Indians, with two other officers, might enter the fort with a message to the commanding officer. Permission having been granted, they were conducted blindfolded into the fort and received by Colonel Gansevoort in his dining-room. The windows of the room were shut and the candles lighted, a table also was spread covered with crackers, cheese and wine. Three chairs placed at one end of the table were occupied by Col. Butler and two other officers who had come with him. At the other end Colonel Gansevoort, Colonel Mullen and Colonel Willett were seated. Chairs were also placed around the table for as many officers as could be accommodated, while the rest of the room was nearly filled by the other officers of the garrison indiscriminately, it being desirable that the officers in general should be witnesses to all that might take place. After passing around the wine with a few commonplace compliments, Major Ancrum, one of the messengers, with a very grave stiff air and a countenance full of importance spoke in nearly the following words:

'I am directed by Colonel St. Leger, the officer who commands the army now investing the garrison, to inform the commandant, that the colonel has with much difficulty prevailed on the Indians to agree that if the garrison without further resistance shall be delivered up with the public stores belonging to it, to the investing army, the officers and soldiers shall have all their baggage and private property secured to them. And in order that the garrison may have a sufficient pledge to this effect, Colonel Butler accompanies me to assure them that not a hair of the head of any one of them shall be hurt.' * * * Col. St. Leger's deputation seeing no likelihood of their terms being acceded to, asked permission for the surgeon who accompanied their flag to visit such of their wounded prisoners as had been taken in the sortie. This was granted; and while the British surgeon in company with Mr. Woodruff, the surgeon of the garrison was visiting the wounded, Major Ancrum proposed a cessation of arms for three days. As the garrison had more reason to fear the want of ammunition than provisions this proposition was agreed to; soon after which the flag returned to their camp and the troops of the garrison enjoyed a brief interval of tranquility and ease."

(2) See note in advance on Capt. Rouville.

who are to be obeyed, as such; orders coming thro Lt. Hamelton(1) and Ens Clergis(2) are to [be] Looked Upon as from the commanding officer of the Expedition-the corps of the Batteau Guard is to send a written Report Every morning to the officer of the Main Guard which will Report it to the commanding officer. Detail of. the Guard. 34th Regt., L. 1 S. C. D. 5 P.; Kings R. R. N. Y. 1 L. 1 S.1 C. 1 D. 9 P.; Jessup's Corps, L. S. C. D. 4 P. Total 1 L. 28. 1 C. 1 D. 18 P.
-17th. P. Fairfield. C. Newhaven. G. O. The corps under the command of Col St.. Leger to hold themselves in Readiness to march on the Shortest Notice. Detail of the Guard, 34th Regt., 1 L. 1 S. C. 1 D. 13 P.; Ks. R. R. N. Y., L. 2 S. 2 C. D. 15 P. Total 1 L. 3 S. 2 C. 1 D. 28 P. REGTL ORDERS. The Commission'd Non Commission'd Officers Drums & private men of the Kings Royal Regt of New York to be under Arms to Morrow Morning at 5 O'clock-the officers will be very particular that their mens Arms are in Good Order & their Regtls Clean so as to appear Decent at the Genl. Review. Company Duty 4 P.

(1) William Osborn Hamilton, St. Leger's private and military secretary.

(2) Lieutenant George Clerges of the 34th regiment. He entered the British army as ensign in the 53rd, July 10, 1776; exhanged into 34th, January 1, 1777; became a lieutenant therein November 5th, 1782, and appears last in army lists in 1783.

-18th. P. Edinburgh. C. Inverness. G. O. 34th Regt takes the Guard to Morrow. For Guard to morrow Ens Clergis. REGTL ORDERS-the Commiss'd Non Commiss'd Officers, Drums & Private men of the Kings Royal Regt of N. York; to be Under arms this Evening at 5 o'clock.
-19th. P. Swansey. C. Monmouth. Forty eight Batteaux to be Delivered to the Royal Regt of New York; Forty Five Felling axes & 3 broad axes to be Delivered to that Regt. Seventy Five Felling axes and two broad axes. [for] the use of the 34th regt which are to be distributed amongst the boats at the discretion of the respective commanding Officers. A number of thole pins to be provided for each boat according to the patterns given to the carpenter, wooden Punches to be made by the boats crews-two Ashing lines & hooks in proportion to be delivered to each boat. The K. R. R. N. Y. are to take 440 barrels of provision allowing 10 barrels each for 44 Batteaus-the rum or brandy delivered out is to be put into the officer's boats for security-his excellency the commander in chief has pleased to appoint Roville [Rouville(1)] esqr to be captain in. a Comp. of Canadians in the room of Capt McKay Resigned-he is to be obeyed as such-the royal Regt of New York to give the

(1) Lieutenant de Rouville, at one time, in command of Chambly. Described as "a good officer, very vigilant and active, ever ready to do his duty exactly."

guards to morrow. Lieutenant Gummerfolk. For guard to morrow, 1 L. 2 S. 2 C. 1 D. 28 P. AFTER ORDERS. The K. R. R. V. York to be compleated with 14 days provision commencing Saturday the 21 June-their boats to be loaded at the Kings stores on Friday, and from thence brought up to their quarter? the same day to be ready to push off at point of day on Saturday- their Division is to be supplied with three pilots, LeCatargne the quarter master is to give a receipt for the number of barrels and the specie the division carries to the commissary at Lachine and is to be accountable for them. It is expected that the several captains have laid in necessaries for their men for the campaign.
-20th. P. Hartford. C. Milford. The 34th Regt to take the Guards to morrow. Ens Phillips 1 Sergt. 1 Corl & 32 Privates to Be left at Lachine in order to go with the baggage of the K. R. R. N. Y. over Lake Champlain to Crown Point & then proceed after the army under the command of General Burgoyne with the baggage as far as Albany if he should proceed to that place-ten old men to Be left at Point Clair.
-21 st. Forty boats to contain 400 barrels of provisions & 7 of rum-the remainder to be left at Colonel St. Leger's Quarters-the barrels to be distributed in such proportion as to make room for the Officers & their baggage. Major Gray must see that the companys provided according to seniority. The Capt. or Officers commanding compys to be in the front-the oldest Sublts in the rear and the youngest in the center-34 precedes; squads of boats abreast when practicable. As Sir John has reason to apprehend from the many Companys that have been made that there may be many [ir]regularities committed by the men [he] recommends it in a particular manner to all the officers.

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