History From America's Most Famous Valleys
Eighteenth Century Palatine Emigration
A British Government Redemptioner Project to Manufacture Naval Stores
by Walter Allen Knittle, Ph.D.
Department of History
College of the City of New York
Published Philadelphia, 1937
Chapter III. The 1709 Emigration in England
Page 47: Scarcely had the harsh winter season of 1709-9 begun to relax its hold in February, when various inhabitants of the Rhine Valley hopefully began their preparations to go to England. These consisted mainly of gathering up their few possessions and securing a recommendation from the local authorities. (1) One of these documents has survived during these two centuries. Gerhart Schaeffer, preparing to emigrate in 1709, secured the following certificate of good character from the Mayor and the clerks of court of Hilgert Dorf, in Hesse-Nassau: "He has lived with us in Hilgert Dorf with his housewife for 24 years and has conducted himself well and honestly, so that all his neighbors regarded him as a faithful neighbor and were entirely satisfied with him, and the neighbors would have been much pleased if it had been God's will that he should remain longer here." It was signed by the Mayor, duly sealed and witnessed. (2)
The passes down the Rhine to Holland took from four to six weeks. This journey was beset with many delays and inconveniences. Fees and tolls were frequently demanded. (3) On the other hand philanthropic assistance was not lacking. Along the river the Palatines were presented with money and food by pious countrymen, many of whom regarded the pilgrims with envious eyes, wishing they too might be seeking their fortune in the New World. Bread, meat, butter and cheese and even an occasional gift of clothing brightened the
1 Simmendinger, op. cit., 2.
2 The original remains in the possession of Schaeffer's descendants, the Kingsley family, of The Rocks, Schoharie, N. Y.
3 Gottlieb Mittelberger, Journey to Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1898), 18. This refers to later years, but earlier conditions were worse.
48: [First Half] Letter of Recommendation of Gerhart Schaeffer, a Palatine
Emigrant, May 26, 1709. Courtesy of the Kingsley Family, Schoharie,
<-Page 49: [Second Half]
Letter of Recommendation of Gerhart Schaeffer, a Palatine Emigrant, May 26, 1709. Courtesy of the Kingsley Family, Schoharie, New York.
Page 50: slow journey. (4) Ever present too must have been the fear that the authorities would halt them temporarily for some trifling matter, as often occurred, or turn them back definitely, as frequently threatened.
While the pioneer groups were preparing for emigration along the Rhine and its tributaries the Neckar and Main Rivers and beginning to gather in numbers, unidentified individuals approached the British authorities in their behalf late in December 1708. The first British official reference to the 1709 Palatine immigration came from James Dayrolle, British Resident at the Hague. It was an undated and unsigned document in French entitled, "Memorial relating to the Poor Protestants from the Palatinate." When Dayrolle enclosed it in a dispatch of December 24, 1708, he said, "It was brought to me from the German post office. How it came thither and from whence I know not." The memorial read: "There arrived in this place a number of Protestant families, traveling to England in order to go to the English colonies in America. There are now in the neighborhood of Rotterdam almost eight or nine hundred of them, having difficulty with the packet boat and convoys." After describing these emigrants as composed of poor families of vigorous people, fleeing persecution and oppression in the Palatinate, the memorial concluded with an appeal to Dayrolle: "My Lord, you are humbly supplicated to procure passage and transportation to England out of the benevolence and charity of the queen." (5) The unknown author of the memorial seems to have anticipated the arrival in Rotterdam of the Palatines by over three months, for it was not until April 19th that Dayrolle reported about nine hundred Palatines at Rotterdam. (6) Meanwhile nothing appears to have been done in London with the exception of the first general naturalization act as related in Chapter I.
4 Kocherthal, Bericht, 77.
5 P. R. O., S. P. 84/232, 7.
6 P. R. O., S. P. 84/ 232, 188.
Page 51: Although Davenant, the English representative at Frankfort in the Palatinate had been ordered in 1708 not to give any public encouragement, money, or passes to emigrants (as was related in Chapter II), Dayrolle at the Hague in the Netherlands was under no such restrictions. Beginning on March 29, 1709, and at intervals thereafter, he reported to London the granting of passes to sixty or a hundred families at a time. (7) On the same date Dayrolle informed London of the general naturalization act under consideration by the Dutch and that undercover moves were being made to have the French recognize such naturalization of French refugees. But the result was reported of course to be uncertain. (8) Dayrolle apparently feared that the Dutch might induce the emigrants to remain in the Netherlands to the loss of Great Britain and her colonies. How groundless this fear turned out to be will soon be apparent.
But Dayrolle was a zealous official, determined to secure these "strong and laborious people" for his own country. By April 19th, the number of Palatines at Rotterdam was about nine hundred persons and more were expected. Dayrolle suggested that the transports bringing troops from England to the Low Countries, to fight against the French in the War of the Spanish Succession, might return to England with the Palatines. He further related to Secretary of State Boyle, "I have acquainted the Duke of Marlborough with it, and his Grace is likewise informed of that poor people's circumstances, wanting some assistance to get over, and he has promised to move Her Majesty in their behalf." (9)
Marlborough was the dominant personality in Queen Anne's government, not only as the military genius of his age and the leader of the alliance against France, but also because
7 P. R. O., S. P. 84/232, 157, 184, 188.
8 It should be remembered that the English in the first decade of the 18th century grudgingly admired the economic progress of the Dutch and such references were well calculated to inspire English action of a similar nature. The English naturalization law was adopted on March 23rd. (See Chapter I).
9 P. R. O., S. P. 84/232, 188.
Page 52: of his family connections. His brother George had dominated the Admiralty until 1708; his son-in-law, Sunderland was the leading Secretary of State; his friend, Godolphin, was the head of the Treasury; and his wife was believed to be supreme over the Queen.(10) Marlborough as minister plenipotentiary was present at the Hague with Lord Townshend to negotiate peace terms at Geertruidenberg. Dayrolle wisely consulted the Duke, for the mention of his interest was enough to move Boyle to present the matter to Queen Anne.(11)With the Queen's approval, orders were issued to the transport ships as Dayrolle had suggested, that is, to return laden with Palatines. (12)
Late in April four transports carried 852 Palatines to London, their subsistence on the voyage being supplied by private charity secured in the Low Countries., (13) In fact, many contributions had to be made to keep the refugees alive. Among others the United Baptists at Amsterdam solicited funds for the Palatines of their faith, many of whom had started from Switzerland.(14) In the same month, the burgomasters of Rotterdam appropriated 750 guilders (c. 75 pounds) for distribution among the destitute emigrants.(15)When some
10 W. T. Morgan, "The Ministerial Revolution of 1710 in England," in Pol. Sci. Quarterly (June, 1921), XXX V1, 1 95.
11 Since the calendar of the Marlborough family papers indicated material dealing with the Palatines (Marlborough MSS., Hist. MSS. Com., 8th Report, Appendix, 47), permission was sought of the family for access to the papers. The request was refused, the only instance of unwillingness to cooperate experienced in the course of this research. Fortunately, the public archives contain enough correspondence to make sufficiently clear Marlborough's official connection with the immigration. The family papers might have indicated a financial interest in the Carolina venture as a motive for Marlborough's cooperation, but this is to be doubted judged from the casual way in which he came to be concerned in transporting the Palatines to England.
13 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/4, 265. This group is evidently the band of 852. Palatines as noted in the first London Relief Lists of May 6, 1709, compiled by Messrs. Ruperti and Tribbeko; P. R. 0., C. 0. 388/76, 56 ii.
14 H. S. P., J. F. Sachse, Dutch Transcripts, April 8, 1709.
15 Resolutions and Dispositions of Burgomasters of Rotterdam, 111, 121.
Page 53: of the Palatines visited Dayrolle on May 6th, he informed them of the order to use the army transports to carry them to England. He was told then that the Elector Palatine had published an edict forbidding emigrants to leave. Two boats laden with Palatines were seized on the Rhine River and the emigrants were imprisoned. Nevertheless, Palatines arrived daily in Rotterdam after escaping by land. (16)I
But when the convoy arrived on May 10th it was learned that only one ship had been ordered to receive Palatines. As a thousand were now awaiting transportation, there was keen disappointment. Dayrolle went to Marlborough, "Who will order it possible, that care may be taken to have them all shipp'd." (17) Since 900 more Palatines arrived in Rotterdam within one week, Dayrolle had Mr. Cardonnel, Marlborough's secretary, write on May 10th to Secretary Boyle " upon that subject." (18) , Cardonnel at Marlborough's order suggested that Dayrolle manage the transportation of the Palatines; making the necessary agreement for their transportation and subsistence in their passage to England. (19)
Anticipating the authorization of this plan from London, Dayrolle with the approval of Cardonnel appointed two Dutch merchants, Hendrik van Toren and John Suderman, to supervise the loading and sailing of the emigrants.(20) These men advised Cardonnel from Rotterdam on the 11th of May that the convoy would sail for England before the orders from London could possibly arrive. They therefore asked him
16 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 218.
17 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 222.
19 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 222.20 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/107, 249. Jan van Gent, another Dutch merchant, replaced Suderman early in June as one of the two Commissioners supervising the embarkation at Rotterdam. Both van Toren and van Gent were men of fine reputation and seem to have been motivated by Christian charity, being members of the Anabaptist Church. They received no remuneration but on the contrary censure from London before they finished their work. P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 267; S. P. 84/232, 525.
On the next day Mr. Cardonnel wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury concerning Marlborough's authorization for the embarkation, "the convoy being ready to saile, his Grace has thought fit, not to loose any time, to give orders for shipping them off so that you may soon expect to hear of them on your side where you will know best what is to be done with them. Mr. Tilson, the secretary, was further instructed to communicate the matter to the Treasurer so that money would be made available to Dayrolle at the Hague for payment of the mer-
21 It has appeared to be necessary to describe in some detail the connection of Marlborough to the emigration, since earlier writers, considering the report of the Parliamentary Investigating Committee in 1711, have been quite at a loss to do so.22 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/4, 265.
23 Lists of Embarkation were kept but without the notation as to age which was requested. These lists, published for the first time, are in the Appendix C. to this book, where their nature and value are discussed.
24 P. R. 0., T.1/119, 6; S. P. 84/232, 239
Page 55: chants' claims for transporting the people.(25) On May 17th, Cardonnel wrote to Mr. Tilson again on the subject of the Palatines, this time at more length. He began, "you will have seen by my last letter the direction my lord Duke has thought good to give in relation to the poor Palatines. In consequence of them, there are about 1300 embarkt and I believe sail'd by this time." (26)
From London on that same date Secretary of State Boyle sent the following letter to Mr. Dayrolle authorizing the transportation of the Palatines at government expense. "Upon what you mentioned in yours of the 21 Inst. N. S. (27) concerning the great number of German Protestants, now lying at Rotterdam, which want to be transported hither; and upon a representation from Mr. Cardonnel, by order of the Duke of Marlborough of the best method for taking care of them, Her Majesty has commanded me, to signify her pleasure to you, that you should take the Transportation of the Said Poor German Protestants into your care, and make an agreement on the best terms you can for providing the necessary Transports there, and subsisting those people in their passage to England. My Lord Treasurer has likewise her Majesty's directions to order Mr. Brydges, the Paymaster, to write Mr. Sweet at Amsterdam, To supply you with such sums of money as the service may require." (28) At the Hague, Dayrolle acknowledged the receipt of the order on May 24th, mentioning that at that time about 2000 more Palatines were at
25 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/4, 267.
26 P. R. 0., S. P 87/4, 158.
27 It should be noted that the Julian calendar was in use in England until 1752., while the Gregorian calendar was generally followed on the continent. There was at this time eleven days difference between the calendars, thus Dayrolle's letter of May 21st New Style was written on the English date, May 10th Old Style. This letter was later used (in 171) by a Parliamentary committee investigating the Palatine immigration, as the basis for charges against Marlborough and his son-in-law Sunderland.
28 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 85; S. P. 44/107, 229; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 170.
Page 56: Rotterdam, awaiting the sailing of the convoy some five days later. (29)
Marlborough's interest in the emigrants and his influence in England were most helpful in securing the English government's aid. It should be clear furthermore that for the subsistence at the government's expense of the second party of Palatines sent on May 12th Marlborough was personally responsible, since he issued the order anticipating the approval of London which did not arrive until May 24th. But the British government with the Queen's approval had authorized the use of the returning army transports as early as April 23rd. It is apparent too, that in May the London authorities regarded the transportation of the Palatines as an extended project, for Secretary Boyle instructed Dayrolle concerning "such further [Palatine] accounts as you shall send me from time to time for that service." (30)
The Palatines continued to arrive in Rotterdam in increasing numbers. Early in June, the arrivals numbered about a thousand a week." (31) This rate was maintained until late in July, when strenuous efforts to stop the emigration were beginning to take effect. On June 14th, Dayrolle informed London that "upon the continuation of H. M. Bounty or any other encouragement, you may have half Germany if you please, for they are all flying away not only from the Palatinate, but from all other countrys in the neighborhood of the Rhine. . . . The expenses may be great but are necessary, if you are in want of these people for the Plantations, as my Lord Townshend seems to be of opinion you are, otherwise they must perish where they come to lye at Briel." (32) Most of the Palatines were quite poor. They were encamped outside Rotterdam in a most miserable condition. A number of shacks
29 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 239.
30 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 88; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 172.
31 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 259.
32 P. R. 0., S. P- 84/232, 268.
Page 57: covered with reeds were all the shelter they had from the weather." Marlborough and Lord Townshend, his fellow ambassador, each contributed 50 pounds to help care for them." All dispatches to England describing the Germans emphasized their need. The great number of children among them was also pointed out."
In the meantime the shipping of the Palatines was being pushed with all despatch possible. Provisions were given to the Palatines while on board ship, and for six or eight days for the crossing." The bargain for subsistence and transportation was made by Mr. Cardonnel with the two Commissioners van Toren and van Gent at 4 stivers a day for each subsisted and 40 stivers for each transported, roughly 4 d. and 3 s. 4 d. respectively.(37) As early as May 17th the Dutch Admiralty had been requested to aid in the embarkation. Even the packet boat carrying dispatches between England and the continent was to carry Palatines who presented themselves, bearing a note or pass from Dayrolle. (38) A month later, Dayrolle proposed that men-of-war be dispatched to convoy ships, as they could be secured at Rotterdam for transport purposes."
By June 8th, the Commissioners van Toren and van Gent in Rotterdam had shipped over 6,000 Palatines at the expense of the British government." As the emigrants continued to arrive in great numbers, Dayrolle began to have qualms concerning the expense. On June 1st, he wrote that, "They tell me the whole Palatinate is ready to follow them poor and rich, so that you will please to let me know what is her Majesty's pleasure in case the numbers augment in that
33 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/4, 184.
34 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232., 480.
35 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/4, 186; S. P. 84/232, 249.
36 P. R . 0., S. P. 44/1O7, 242; T 1/119, 72.
37 P. R. 0., S- P. 84/232, 259
38 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/4, 158, 160.
39 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 273.
40 P. R. 0., T1/119, 10, 26, 72.
Page 58: manner. " (41) On June 7th, after pointing out the number of Palatines reported on the way to Rotterdam, he finished, "you may judge how far the expense may go." On the 10th, he asked for further instructions.(42) Meanwhile in London on June 7th and June 10th, Secretary of State Boyle sent dispatches to Dayrolle, ordering him "to continue the same methods in taking care of the poor Palatines, as you have hitherto done, till further orders." (43) But on June 14th, Dayrolle again emphasized the great expense and asked Boyle for particular directions, "How far to go with money for subsisting them on their passage. " A few days later, Dayrolle promised to follow directions, "till new orders" were received, but he wanted instructions about the extraordinary expenses. (44)
At last, on June 24th, Boyle sent orders to Dayrolle to send over only those Palatines at Rotterdam upon receipt of his letter. The immigrants were coming "over so fast" that it was impossible to care for them and dispose of them, and "the success of the whole matter may happen thereby to be disappointed." A further restriction was then added, "And as there are many papists mix'd among them you are for the future to allow none to come over but such as are Protestants."(45) Dayrolle had reported the presence of a great many Roman Catholics on June 1st, but Marlborough had told him, "there was no great inconveniency, to let them go with the rest." (46) The difficulty in discriminating was great, and the Catholic Palatines were a problem left for the London authorities to handle.
On the 25th of June, Dayrolle wrote that he could not understand the instructions issued by the Treasurer to his
41 P. R. 0., S. P. 87/232, 248.
41 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 259, 261.
43 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 88, 89; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 174, 175.
44 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 267, 273.
45 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 90; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 176.
41 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 249.
Page 59: representative at the Hague to "pay only such as are actually on board ready to come over, and no more than what will be necessary to bring them hither."(47) On the 29th, he moved to stop several thousand Palatines on their way down the Rhine River. He sent some back to give warning to the rest. He also ordered that an advertisement be inserted in the Gazette of Cologne, notifying the people that no more would be received. In his report to London on July 1st, Dayrolle asserted he would not concern himself any further in the affairs of the Palatines, unless he received further orders to do so. He was impelled to point out though that "if once the warr be finished, very few of this people will abandon their country and you may loose the opportunity of having them." He also enclosed several proposals for settlement which he had received. (48) Nevertheless, on July 5th, when Dayrolle reported the sailing Of 2,776 Palatines the day before, he mentioned the presence of 500 more at Rotterdam, "who must shift for themselves, as well as they can, if you don't send me new orders." (49) He was informed that his advertisement had caused the several thousand on the Rhine to turn back. But the following week, this information was found to be false. About 1,200 Palatines then at Rotterdam sent deputies to Dayrolle, begging his intercession with the British government in their behalf. Failing to persuade them to return home, he agreed to write but gave them no encouragement. (50)
While these events were taking place in the Netherlands, Boyle wrote from London, complimenting him on his actions in preventing further immigration. Upon this information, as it appeared, that no more Palatines would be arriving in Rotterdam destined for London, orders were given to ship the 500, (51) referred to in Dayrolle's letter of July 5th. But Dayrolle then found that the Palatines awaiting transporta-
47 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232,300.
48 P. R. O., S. P. 84/232., 305, 309.
49 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 320.
50 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 325.
51 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 90, 91; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866,178, 180.
Page 60: tion numbered 2,000. (52) At a loss for action, he questioned Boyle on July 15th, "I cannot avoid sending all or none at all. My Lord Townshend is of the opinion, Her Majesty will not be displeased, if I provide transports for the whole number not being possible for these people to retire to their own country." (53) Boyle replied immediately on the 19th, "if the 2,000 you mention in this letter are not embarked, when mine comes to your hands, you must have nothing to do with any of them." (54) But his order was too late, for on July 18th, 1,433 Palatines sailed for London. (55) Dayrolle wrote this fact the next day, the very day that Boyle in London was forbidding the embarkation. These immigrants were certainly fortunate that the days of electrical communication had not yet appeared. Dayrolle expected trouble, for he excused himself, saying that he had acted by the advice of Lord Townshend. (56) Still there were Palatines arriving in Rotterdam. Dayrolle advised Boyle late in July that the good people of that city thought of sending them over at private expense without passes and perhaps without convoys, which he could not prevent. (57) On August 12th, he reported that about 1,000 had sailed under those conditions, 250 of them having had sufficient funds to pay their own way (58) On the 23rd, Secretary Boyle instructed Lord Townshend to request the Dutch to prevent any further embarkation. (59) On the 26th, Boyle ordered Dayrolle to inform them, that any more Palatines sent to England would be returned. (60) He replied reassuringly that since the summer was over, few of them would come."
53 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 337
54 P. R. O., S. P. 104, 74, 92.
55 P. R. O., T. 1/119, 79, 82.
56 P. R. O., S. P. 84/232, 343.
57 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 349.
58 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 383
59 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 95; B. M., Add. MSS. i5866, 185.
60 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 94; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 187.
61 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232., 41.
Page 61: The warnings to the Dutch authorities seem to have had little effect however for the immigration was not stopped. Though the Dutch had passed a general naturalization act on July 18, 1709, N.S., (62) they apparently wanted to rid themselves of these poor emigrants, who had become a serious charge against their charitable resources. During August the authorities of Rotterdam sent notices up the Rhine, attempting to halt the emigration. For eight days, Messrs. van Toren and van Gent were despatched in two yachts paid for by the town authorities." On August 24th, the town authorities of Brielle, the seaport for embarkation, asked financial support from Rotterdam for the Palatines, "their poor-purse being exhausted." They even threatened to send the emigrants back to Rotterdam." From Rotterdam two days later the burgomasters replied, reciting their own difficulties and their efforts to extricate themselves. They offered to join Brielle in seeking help from the States General, the national assembly of Holland. (65)
When Dayrolle formally requested the States General to order their College of Admiralty not to allow any more Palatines to be transported to England, they replied that they could not prevent those already in the Netherlands from crossing to England, but that they would order their ministers at Cologne and Frankfort to warn the people not to come for that purpose. This was done accordingly, and their ministers acknowledged those orders on September 13th and 15th
62 P.R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 338; The State of the Palatines, 7. There was much dissatisfaction with this naturalization law, since it gave the Jews and Roman Catholics the same benefit offered to Protestants, who felt they should be shown preference. P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 360.
63 Resolutions and Dispositions of Burgomasters of Rotterdam, III, 126, 127.
64 Letters to Burgomasters of Rotterdam 1707-1713, XXIII (August 26, 1709).
65 Letter Book of Burgomasters of Rotterdam, X (August 26, 1709).
66 Record of Resolutions of the States General of the United Netherlands, 1709, II, 348; P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 480.
<- Circular Advertising Carolina, distributed to the Palatines aboard the transports in Rotterdam in August, 1709. Courtesy of the British Record Office.
respectively. The Dutch authorities were most concerned with the possibility of their being saddled with the care of the stranded emigrants.
In the meantime, Dayrolle was confronted with a provoking incident. He had failed early in September to stop the sailing of several transports laden with Palatines, but he learned that someone in England was encouraging the movement despite his advertisement against the emigration. Then late in August an unknown gentleman, who had come accompanied by a servant from Harwick (England) on the packet boat, went aboard the transports laden with Palatines. After distributing some charity funds, he passed out thousands of circulars, which he desired them to send to their friends in Germany. (67) These circulars, about 3" by 6" in size, were entitled, "Propositions of the Lords Proprietors of Carolina to encourage the Transporting of Palatines to the Province of Carolina." The propositions, dated July 15th, offered (I) a hundred acres of land for each man, woman and child, free
67 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232., 415.
Page 63: from quit-rent for ten years, and thereafter to pay one penny per acre annually (2) if they would settle in towns now or later, to lease them land for building and improvement for the term of three lives or ninety-nine years, which should expire first at a pepper-corn rent, with the privilege to renew in case the lives died. (68) Dayrolle could not discover who the gentleman was, but he offered the suggestion, ""'Tis probable those tickets came from the Proprietors of Carolina or from some disaffected people." (69) Boyle immediately called a meeting of the Lords of the Committee of Council and he wrote, "It is possible orders may be given for sending them back again." (70) On September 9th, he acquainted Dayrolle with the results of the Council meeting. Although the landing of more Palatines could not be prevented, they would not be cared for at public expense, until those already in England could be provided for." Dayrolle went further than that, for he informed the Palatines embarking at Rotterdam, they would be sent back from England. (72) Indeed, 2-2-57 Roman Catholic Palatines were sent back to Rotterdam with a present of 5 guilders each late in September. (73)
Nevertheless, there were 1,500 more emigrants at Rotterdam desirous of reaching England. (74) They even considered sending deputies to England to petition the Queen for her assistance. On September 28th, the Palatines at Rotterdam sent a heartrending petition to Secretary Boyle, in which they related how they had been enticed to leave their homes by what they just learned to be false promises in Queen Anne's name. As they had spent most of what they had to subsist on
68 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232-, 421. These proposals had been made to the Board of Trade in London on August 11th to encourage the Palatines there to settle in Carolina. C. C. 1708-1709, 445.
69 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232-, 423
70 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 95; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 189.
71 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 96; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 190.
72 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 444.
73 P. R. 0., T. 1/119, 93, 98, 136-153; S. P- 84/232, 467, 480.
74 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 467.
Page 64: their journey, they with their wives and children would perish of hunger unless admitted to England. In their deplorable condition they ate their "bread in tears." They begged him to relieve them "from a continual agony." (75) Nevertheless, on October 11th, Secretary Sunderland refused their petition, although the Queen was touched by their misery. He pointed out "the great clamour that such numbers doe raise in the time of scarcitle, and the great load and expense it is on the government." The British government also felt certain that should it vary from its resolution to admit no more, there would be no end to the immigration." But on the same day, Dayrolle at the Hague wrote to Sunderland that 1,100 Palatines had sailed several days earlier, "notwithstanding all my endeavors to prevent it." (77)
The following week, Sunderland informed Dayrolle of their arrival in the Thames River and ordered an investigation, for inquiry pointed to Mr. Henrick van Toren under Dayrolle's authority, "forcing the Palatines to sail for England, even though some of them had hired their passage in boats, to return home." (78) Dayrolle after an investigation found that the officials of Rotterdam, desiring to rid their city of the Palatines who would not return home, had Messrs. van Toren and van Gent ship them "with what moneys I know not." Dayrolle could not prevent it, but he thought that van Toren and van Gent were motivated only by the most charitable' considerations. (79) Dayrolle was not so innocent though, for in a letter of November 5th to Messrs. van Toren and van Gent, he wrote, "My sending the quantity [of Palatines] you imbarqued lately has been disapproved, tho my intentions were good." He wished them success, if one of them went to England to make representations as they intended, but "for
75 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 449.
76 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 97; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 192.
77 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 495, 517.
78 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 97, 98, 99; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 193, 194,195.
79 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 525.
Page 65: my own part, I dare not write anything more on that subject nor meddle in it." (80)
Late in October, when explaining the sailing of the last party "against" his orders, Dayrolle remarked that there would be no more except a few left behind, but "I am informed that a great many intend to come next summer, if not timely prevented by some notification in Germany made in Her Majesties name, not being possible to dissuade them by any other authority." (81) Following his suggestion, a Royal Proclamation was drawn up, printed in German and distributed widely in the Rhine Valley. It declared that no more people would be received in England, much less supported. All those Germans, who arrived since the first of October were to be sent back to Germany at the first opportunity. All who intended to emigrate were warned that such attempts would assuredly fall, unless they had means of their own to support themselves. (82)
Summarizing the numbers of the Palatine immigration of 1709 to England, the records show that
852 sailed late in April
and arrived early in May
1,283 " May 12th " " about May 19th
2,926 " May 31st " " June 6th
1,794 " June 10th " " June 16th
2,776 " July 4th " " July 11th
1,433 " July 17th " " July 24th
C. 1,000 " August 6th " " August 13th
C. 1,082 " October 11th " " October 18th
13,146 are mentioned in the official correspondence. (83) It is
80 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 529.
81 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 536.
82 Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, Diffenderffer, op. cit., 15.
83 This table is compiled from the following sources: P. R. 0., C. 0. 388/76, 56 ii; T. I/119, 6-10, 27,65,72., 82; S. P. 87/4, 265; S. P. 84/232, 239, 320, 383, 495, 517. For information concerning the first six lists of emigrants, see the Appendices B and C. There were no lists kept of the last two groups noted as sailing in August and October, since they were supplied with funds obtained from private charitable sources in Holland.
Page 66: quite probable however that the number reached 13,500, quite a few of the Palatines were sent by the packet boat or by regular shipping at their own expense or by charity funds after the official transportation ceased on July 18th. Small groups going in this way may have sailed without mention in the official correspondence.
Of the probable number of 13,500, who were able to reach England, 2,257 Roman Catholics were sent back late in September, as related before. On January 20th, 1710, Boyle notified Dayrolle that about 900 Palatines who desired to return home were to be sent shortly and that they should have his best efforts to speed them on their way. (84) So on March 3rd, 1710, he received Dayrolle's report of their safe arrival. (85) Late in March of the next year (1711) 618 Palatines, all Roman Catholics, were returned to the Netherlands. They were given five guilders each as a parting present to speed them on their way home." This seems to have been done by the British government for all the Palatines returned to the continent, and it was a gesture much admired in the Netherlands. (87) More than 3,000 Roman Catholics were sent back in all, if Simmendinger's estimate is correct. (88) With more than 3,500 returned, there were left about 10,000 of the 13,500 estimate, still to be accounted for. What did the British authorities do with them?
In London, the citizens were amazed. In three months more than 11,000 alien people had arrived in their midst. London was not so large a city that many thousands could be poured into it conveniently without notice. The government was hard put to provide shelter and food for them. The squares, the taverns, all the refuges of London were crowded
84 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 100; B. M., Add. MSS. 15866, 197.
85 P. R. 0., S. P. 104/74, 101; B. M., Add. MSS.15866, 199.
86 P. R. 0., T. 1/132, 165, 170. This debarkation list of Palatine families is included in Appendix D.
87 P. R. 0., S. P. 84/232, 480.
88 Simmendinger, op. cit., 3.
Page 67: with Palatines. In addition, 1,600 tents were issued by the Board of Ordnance (89) and encampments were formed on Blackheath on the south side of the Thames, at Greenwich, on the Thames, just north of Blackheath, and at Camberwell, (90) a suburb of London, about two miles from St. Paul's. Others found quarters near the Tower, in St. Catherine's, Tower Ditch, Wapping, Nightingale Lane, East Smithfield and their neighborhoods. Barns and cheap houses were rented for them at Kensington, Walworth, Stockwell and Bristol Cansey.(91) The large rope-houses at Deptford were utilized for shelter for many of the Palatines, while others were disposed of by the care of charitable persons in Aldgate and Lambeth. (92) About 1,400 were lodged in the large warehouse of Sir Charles Cox, who had offered it gratis. (93) The crowded condition of these places of shelter made them unhealthy, The Board of Trade was informed of this and strove to remedy the difficulty; certainly the Board and the English Whigs (94) in particular deserve a great deal of credit for their sympathetic treatment and generosity, in the early stages of the immigration. At any rate, surgeons were sent among the Palatines and efforts were made to lessen their discomfort by securing additional quarters. (95)
The Germans evidently expected that immediately on arrival in England, they would be dispatched in a body across the sea; but no one stood ready to carry out such a program.
89 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 93; B. M., Strafford Papers, Add. MSS. 2 2 202, 105; "Brief History," in Eccles. Rec., III, 1786.
90 Marlborough MSS. (Hist. Mss. Com., 8th Report, Appendix), 47; State of the Palatines, 7; Boyer, op. cit. (1709), 167; B. T. Jour. 1708-I714, 37.
91 "Brief History," in Eccles. Rec., III, 1786; also 1741.92 Stow, op. cit., I, 43; Cal. Treas. Papers 1708-1714, 153.
93 Diffenderffer, op. cit., 297. Since he allowed them to remain until they were sent to Ireland and elsewhere, thus losing revenue in the seasonal period of the use of the warehouse, he was given as compensation 100 guineas by the government on February 9, 1710.
94 [Hare], Canary Birds Naturaliz'd in Utopia (London, 1709).95 See Minutes of Palatine Commissioners' Meeting in Eccles. Rec., III, 1740 et seq.; C. C. 1708-1709, 296.
Shortly after June 1st, the Ministry hit upon the expedient of raising money by public subscription. Letters were sent to the leading financial organizations, requesting voluntary contributions, for example to the Bank of England and the East India Company." (99) On June 7, 1709, the justices of the Peace for the County of Middlesex sent a petition to the Queen asking for authority to take up a collection in their county for their Palatines. The Queen not only granted the desired authority, but also extended it to the public generally throughout the kingdom. (100)
A proclamation was issued June 28, 1709, for the collection of alms and a board of commissioners was appointed to handle the funds and "to perform every matter and thing . . . necessary and convenient for the better Employment and Settlement of the said poor Palatines." The commissioners named were nearly a hundred in number and included the great dignitaries of the kingdom."' The collection was carried out largely
96 B. T. Jour. 1708-1714, 36
97 Private Corres. Duchess Marlborough (London, 1838), II, 338.
98 C. C. 1708-1709, 343.
99 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 92.
100 Boyer, Annals (1709), 167; Luttrell, op. cit., V1, 453, 454, 474.
Appendix III, 35 et seq.
<-Contemporary Woodcut, showing the Palatines encamped on Blackheath outside London. Courtesy of the Widener Library, Harvard University.
Page 69: through the organization of the Established Church. The various bishops wrote letters to the clergy of their dioceses during the first week of July, and advanced all kinds of arguments for, and refuted some against, the policy of relieving these ''poor German Protestants." (102) The letter of the Bishop of Oxford is particularly noteworthy in that he attached a postscript, "I think it would much forward this service if you could prevail with some of the chiefest of your parishioners to accompany you when you go to collect the charity of the rest." (103) On one impulse or another the Whigs vied with one another to contribute to the fund, the Duke of Newcastle alone donating 500 pounds, (104) and the large sum of 19,838 pounds, II shillings was collected. (105)The Palatine camps were a source of wonder to the London
102 Ibid., Appendix III, 42. Bishop William Nicolson wrote from Carlisle to Bishop Wake of Lincoln, "The Palatine briefs are not yet arrived in the North. And when they do come they'l find charity very cold in these parts. I should be thankful for one of your printed letters, since I am wholly in the dark, as to the sum and substance of the affair. Some comfort it is to find, by your information that the numbers of Papists amongst those people are not so great as was said." Christ Church, Oxford, Wake MS., August 2.9, 1709.
103 Ibid., Appendix III, 53. The method suggested is still in vogue today among clergy as the best known method to produce results.
104 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., 13th Report, Appendix), II, 207.
105 Eccles. Rec., III, 1753
Page 70: populace. (106) Every Sunday crowds would gather and the Palatines became the focus of curiosity-seekers. They capitalized this by making toys of small value and selling them to the multitudes who came to see them. One account of the Palatines states, "They are contented with very ordinary food, their bread being brown and their meat of the coarsest and cheapest sort, which, with a few herbs, they eat with much cheerfulness and thankfulness. On the whole, they appear to be an innocent, laborious, peaceable, healthy and ingenuous people, and may be rather reckoned a blessing than a burden to any nation where they shall be settled." (107) An interesting incident, which is at the same time illustrative of the hardihood of these people, is the one related by a contemporary diarist, Luttrell, September 13, 1709, "A wager of 100 pounds was laid last week, that a German, of 64 years' old, should walk in Hide Park 300 miles in 6 dayes, which he did within the time, and a mile over." (108)
The conditions among the Palatines were certainly very bad. Bread was never known to have been so dear, (109) and the government allowance was insufficient to sustain them properly. They were obliged to beg on the streets of London and this begging was done principally by the married women. (110) Philanthropists of the day distributed both money and supplies among the needy Palatines. One shopkeeper, a Quaker, cut up several wagon-loads of cloth during eight consecutive
106 R. Palmer wrote to Ralph Verney in the country, "The case of the Palatines is all our domestic talk." August 17, 1709, Verney MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., 7th Report, Appendix), 507.
107 The State of the Palatines, 27; Eccles. Rec., 111, 1831.
108 Luttrell, op. cit., VI, 488.
109 Gilbert Burnet, History of His Own Times (2nd ed., Oxford, 1833), VI, 38 says that bread sold at double the ordinary price; Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 15. A Royal Proclamation was issued on October 24th, putting in execution the old laws against forestalling and regrating of corn, Robert Steele, ed., Catalogue of Tudor and Stuart Proclamations 1485-1714 (Oxford, 1910), 530.
C. J., XVI, 596.
Page 71: days. Another gave shoes, while a third distributed shirts. (111)
But the novelty of the presence of the Palatines soon wore off for the London populace and an uglier attitude, due to the tight economic conditions, set in. (112) The poorer classes of the English people said the Palatines came to eat the bread of Englishmen, and reduce the scale of wages. The latter, it was alleged, had already fallen from 18 pence to 15 pence per day, where the Palatines were encamped (113). Even the native beggars felt that the Queen's bounty should belong to them. (114) The shopkeepers were also opposed to the newcomers for fear that their trade might be harmed by the competition of unenfranchised foreigners. (115)
The Palatine encampments were occasionally attacked by London mobs. Upon one occasion about 2,000 infuriated Englishmen, armed with axes, scythes, and smith hammers, were said to have made an attack upon the Palatine camp and struck down all who did not flee. (116) When settlements of Palatines were attempted, riots occurred in some localities. Juries were prejudiced. Nothing "that was said upon oath by the witnesses [was] sufficient to gain any verdict at Sundrich but in justification of the Rioters." (117) Many times were the Palatines threatened and mobbed, much to the Queen's chagrin. (118)
This feeling against the Palatines was exhibited even among the "better" people of England. It seems to have been rooted in a fear of contamination by prevalent contagious
111 Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 108; The Piety and Bounty of Great Britain, with the Charitable Benevolences of her Loving Subjects toward the Support and Settlement of the Distressed Protestant Palatines (London, 1709).
112 Ibid., 8.
113 Burnet, op. cit., V, 439; Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 111.
114 A Song in Praise of Begging or the Beggars Rival'd (1710); Burnet, op. cit., VI, 38.115 [Hare], Reception, 30.
116 Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 108.
117 P. R. 0., S. P. 34/II, October 13, 1709
118 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, passim.
Page 72: diseases. On July 15, 1710, Lady Pye wrote to Mrs. Abigail Harley of someone's fine daughter having died of smallpox. She added, "The notion with some people is that the Palatines brought in this very ill kind [of smallpox]." (119) On August 23, 1709, Mr. John Floyer wrote to Lady Dartmouth at Blackheath, "I wish you the recovery of your health, and a better neighbor than the Palatines, who I fear have infected your pure air. Our country has loads of them and call them gypsies not knowing the language and seeing their poor clothes." (120) One writer says that the English hatred of the Palatines shows only their great dislike for aliens, which was proverbial. On the other hand, the Palatines were not a people of little spirit. They soon came to resent this attitude of the English and met it in kind. Hearne's Collections (August 26, 1709) contains an account of 40 Palatines in the neighborhood when three or four Englishmen, drinking a pot or two of ale, "made some Reflections upon the Receiving of these People into the Kingdom; which, being heard by one of the Palatines, he gave a hint to his Companions, and they all immediately came into the Room and beat the persons in a very rude and inhuman manner." (122)
Meanwhile the Palatines had little employment, and the pressing problem was what to do with them. The efforts to settle the Palatines began with the first official letter after their arrival. In this letter, the Earl of Sunderland, writing to the Board of Trade, on May 3, 1709, indicated the government's desire according to the prevailing mercantilist views to encourage immigration. The Queen had been informed of the arrival of some hundreds of German Protestants and expected more from the Palatinate with the intention of settling in the
119 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., 15th Report, Appendix), IV, 549.
120 Dartmouth MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com. 15th Report, Appendix), III, 147.
C. B. A. Kent, Early
History of the Tories
(London, 1908), 434.
122 C. E. Doble, ed., Remarks and Collections of Thomas Hearne (Oxford Hist. Soc., 1885-1906, II, 239.
Page 73: English plantations in America. "Her Majesty was convinced however, that it would be much more advantageous to Her Kingdom, if these people could be settled comfortably here instead of sending them to the West Indies." Such a result would be a great encouragement to others to follow their example. The addition to the number of her subjects would in all probability produce a proportionable increase of their trade and manufactures. The Board of Trade was ordered to take the matter under consideration and report as soon as possible the proper method and the part of England most feasible for it.",
Two days later, Sunderland had ordered the Board of Trade to inquire into their numbers and condition, and to report what was needed for their support, until they were either settled in England or sent to the plantations. (124) Pursuant to this request the Board of Trade asked two German ministers resident in London to carry on the inquiry. These men were John Tribbeko, chaplain of his late R. H. Prince George of Denmark, and George Andrew Ruperti, minister of the German Lutheran Church in the Savoy. (125) They reported to the Board on May 9th, that the Palatines were in dire straits. A number of them were ill for want of necessary sustenance. Many were almost naked. They were "pakt up in such great numbers, we have found very often 20 to 30 men and women together with their children in one room." (126) Tribbeko and Ruperti drew up from time to time the four Palatine lists, which are a valuable source of information today. (127) But
123 Sunderland added that since most of the immigrants were " husbandmen and labouring people," it should be easier to dispose of them to the advantage of the public. P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 66; B. T. Jour. 1708-1714, 26; Eccles. Rec., III, 1733; C. C. 1708-1709, 290.
124 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 67; C. C. 1708-1709, 295; Eccles. Rec., III, 1734.
125 Eccles. Rec., III, 1736.
P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 72; C. C.
127 P. R. 0., C. 0. 388/76, 56 ii, 64, 68-70. For a discussion of these lists see Appendix B.
Page 74: the crowds of people were soon beyond their best efforts, and they had to ask for help. (128)
Most of the Palatines were farmers and vine-dressers, that is, over half of the first four groups to arrive in London as noted by Messrs. Tribbeko and Ruperti. The rest were distributed in some 35 other trades, the next highest number of occupations being about go carpenters and about 75 textile workers. The lists included about 12 schoolmasters and three surgeons (129) Some of the Palatine vine-dressers, "encourag'd by their friends abroad in Pensilvania," brought vine plants with them for a new start in the plantations. (130) The last group to leave Rotterdam for England was described as "for the most part tradesmen." (131)
The continued arrival of many Palatines and their inability to support themselves began to worry the Ministry deeply. On the 15th of May, Sunderland commanded the Board of Trade to "make what dispatch you can to report. . . ." (132) By August 6th, the Lord Treasurer had written to the Board ''to make a proposal for the speedy disposing of them, in such manner as may soonest lessen the expense the Government is now at for their subsistence." (133) At the same time, he commented on the "slow steps that are made towards [the] settling of them."
One of the schemes projected was to settle 10,000 Palatines on the Rio de la Plata, in South America. A regiment would have been necessary to protect them, however, and the calculated expense of over 200,000 pounds was prohibitive. Another project called for a settlement in the Canary Islands. The proposer did not mention that the Spaniards were to be driven out, but as they were an obstacle, this project was not given consideration. (134)
128 C. C. 1708-1709, 370.
129 P. R. 0., C. 0. 388/76, 56 ii, 64, 68, 69.
130 P. R. 0, S. P. 87/4, 158.
131 P. R. O., C. O. 84/232, 480.
132 Ibid., 300; Eccles. Rec., III, 1738.
133 Ibid., 444.
134 "Brief History," in Eccles. Rec., III, 1789.
Page 75: The Board of Trade received a proposal from the Society of London for Mines Royal to employ the strongest of the Palatines in the silver and copper mines of Penlyn and Merionethshire, Wales. (135) The merchants of Bedford and Barnstable, concerned in the Newfoundland fishery, offered to employ 500 Palatines in their industry. (136) A project for settling some of them in Herefordshire and Gloucestershire, proposed by the Marquis of Kent, Lord Chamberlain, was also considered by the Board of Trade. The last project, it was found, would entail a cost of 150,000 pounds, if all were settled at the proposed rate; hence it was abandoned. (137) A proposal was also made for repeopling with Palatines the islands of Nevis and St. Christopher in the West Indies, which had recently been attacked by the French. (138) Colonel Daniel Parke, Governor of the Leeward Islands, who made the suggestion, was sorely provoked with Sunderland because it was not accepted. (139)
An attempt was then made to settle the Palatines throughout England by offering three pounds per head to the parishes which would be willing to receive them, the government to pay the expense of sending them to the respective places. (140) The bounty was taken in some instances and the immigrants, finding themselves uncared for, returned to London again. Some of their experiences are interesting. One Palatine, who had been a hunter, was, to his great disgust, required to take care of swine. Sixteen families were sent to the town of Sunderland, near Newcastle in Yorkshire. They expected grants of land, but were made day laborers. Another group was given a half pound of bread a day per person, a pound of salt a week,
135 B. T. Jour. 1708-17I4, 41, 42, 47; C. C. 1708-709, 307, 32-2-, 370.
137 H. S. P., Jour. B. T., XXI, 138; B. T. Jour. 1708-1704, 44, 47; C. C. 1708-1709, 343, 360.
138 Luttrell, op. cit., VI, 420, 422, 454.
140 B. T. Jour. 1708-1714, 6o; Verney MSS. (Hist. MSS. COM, 7th Report, Appendix), 507.
Page 76 : but no meat or vegetables. (141) Many of the Palatines, too poor to return or for other reasons, probably stayed. The plan to locate the Palatines in England was earnestly attempted. Sunderland wrote a letter, among many others, to the Mayor of Canterbury, asking him to receive and permanently locate some of them. This letter, referred to the town magistrates, was answered by the observation that they could not comply with the request, as their own poor were a heavy burden. (142) Liverpool received 130 but they drifted away as soon as the government support had been exhausted. (143) The justices of Peace of East Riding, Yorkshire, agreed to accept Palatines, but the authorities of Nottinghamshire regretted that they could do nothing to assist them. (144) Some Palatines were also settled in Chester. (145)
Captain Thomas Ekines of the English Navy came forward with a proposal that 600 of the Palatines, about 150 families, should be settled in the Scilly Islands, (146) a small group off the southwest coast of England. Sunderland thought well of the project, and on September 21st and October 2, 1709, two transports were sent down the Thames with 450 Palatines on board, well provisioned and supplied. (147) The inhabitants of the Island of Scilly, learning of the venture, protested that they could not earn a living themselves on that meager haven, and so these people were never sent to their destination, but after remaining on shipboard three entire months, were again set on shore on December 30th of the same year. They eventually
141 Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, III.
142 P. R. 0., S. P. 44108, 87; S. P- 34/13, June 17, 1709; B. T. Jour. 1708-1714, 314.
143 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 155; Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 110.
144 P. R. 0., S. P. D. 34/11, 47, 60.
145 Corporation of City of Chester MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., 8th Report, Appendix), 395.
141 Portland MSS. (Hist. MSS. Com., 13th Report, Appendix), 11, 207.
147 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/108, 151, 162, 168, 188.
Page 77: found their way back to Blackheath. The cost of this miserable failure was some 1,500 pounds (148)
A merchant was reported to have made a contract to send 500 families to Barbados. (149) It does not seem to have been carried out, but 500 Palatines were settled in the Bahama Islands in 1717. (150) It is not clear however that they were part of the 1709 immigration. In 1722,, Charles Carrington, of New Providence, describing Nassau to the Board of Trade, wrote, "about 14 miles west of Nassau is Palatyne town, inhabited by Palatines, an indolent, laizy tribe and good for little." (151) On the other hand, when Governor Phemey wrote to Lord Cartaret in 1723, he said, "The remaining Palatines are now by my assistance in a very flourishing condition.... They are a very industrious people and I could wish for a great many more of them.: (152) Several proposals were made to the Board of Trade to settle some Palatines in Jamaica. These were very seriously considered, (153) but the ambitious plans drawn up proved to be too costly, and the climate was adjudged too warm for the emigrants. It does not appear that any settlement of importance was made, (154) although a few Palatines may have been sent there. Luttrell noted, August 3, 1710, that, "Letters from Jamaica tell us that the Palatines designed for that place are safely arrived there, and disposed of to the advantage of that island." (155) A contemporary account reads that those of 16 families sent to Sunderland, who
148 C. J., XVI, 598.
149 The State of the Palatines, 8.
150 C. C. 1717-1718, 29.
151 P. R. 0., C. 0. 23/2, 75; C. C. 1722-1723, 60.
152 P. R, 0., C. 0- 23/13, 147.
153 P. R. 0., C. 0. 137/8, 451; C- 0- 5/908, 76; C. C. 1708-1709, 657-872 passim; C. C. 1710-1711, 53, 58.
154 C. C. 1710-1711, 244; C. C. 1716-177, 337.
155 Luttrell, op. cit., VI, 613; also see 422., 454, 455. Luttrell may be confusing Jamaica with New York as even the continental colonies were often loosely referred to as the West Indies.
Page 78: had tried to run away in the night, were sent finally to Jamaica as slaves. (156)
Disappointed and disillusioned, 150 of the able-bodied young men enlisted in the British army and were sent to serve in Lord Galloway's regiment then on duty in Portugal, (157) and some 18 or more apparently enlisted in Lord Hay's regiment, according to Luttrell. (158) We are told that 322 entered the military service and that 141 children were "purchased by the English," which means most probably that they were apprenticed perhaps for a price. (159) At least 56 of the young people became domestic servants. (160)
The large number of Catholics in the Palatine immigration has been mentioned before, but it will be remembered that the Queen was saving only "poor German Protestants." The Catholic Palatines in London, and in Rotterdam, awaiting transportation, were given their choice of becoming "poor Protestants" to be saved by the Queen, or of returning to their homes along the Rhine. (161) Many of the Germans were devout people, as the contemporary accounts indicate, yet some found it convenient to change their religion. (162) Those who refused were ordered to return to Germany. (163) About September 6, 1714, several thousand Catholic Palatines, preparing to go
156 Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 110.
157 Eccles. Rec., III, 183.
158 Luttrell, op. cit., VI, 494.
159 Das verlangte nicht erlangte Canaan, 112.
161, Simmendinger (op. cit., 3) stated "Catholischer Religion/ehe sie auf der Konigen Aninuthen ihren Glauben changiren wolten/ wieder nach Hauss umgekehret. Dieser Catholischen Ruck =Reise aber/offnete uns in Roterdam uber 5. wochen lang still gelegenen Reisenden/den Passnach Engelland . . . ;" Boyer, Annals (1709), 168.
162 " Several of the poor Palatines who came lately over, and were papists, have renounced that religion, and more of them 'tis expected will doe the like." (August 6, 1709), Luttrell, op. cit., VI, 473.-
163 " 'The Papish Palatines who came hither are ordered to goe home having passports for the same." (September 15, 1709), Luttrell, op. cit.: VI, 489.
Page 79: home again, petitioned the Queen. They said they had been encouraged to leave their homes having a promise for the free exercise of religion, which was now denied them. Accordingly, they requested the Queen out of her goodness and justice to pay their expenses home. (164) Their request was granted. Records show that more than 2,000 were returned and the costs were paid by the government.( 165)
A sad commentary must be made upon an incident which occurred on August 17, 1709. Secretary of State Boyle wrote to the Secretary of War, Sir Robert Walpole, that the resolutions of the commissioners for returning the Palatines to Germany had been laid before the Queen. She ordered that ''you do take care, that some commission officer do go among the Palatines and try whether any of the Papists will enter into Her Majesty's service in Portugal."(166) Although the Papists were not welcome to stay in England, they were quite acceptable in Her Majesty's armed forces. In the midst of all the flurry and confusion attendant on the distribution and settlement of the Palatines, Secretary Sunderland learned to his disgust that the Board of Trade could not meet, since a majority of its members were out of town. So, on October 5, 1709, orders were issued commanding their immediate return to consider " matters of moment which require despatch." Two weeks later, on the 19th, a standing order was sent to the Board of Trade, requiring them to have a quorum of members in constant attendance. (167) To say the least, this is an interesting example of the inefficiency of British colonial officialdom in the eighteenth century.
164 Doble, op. cit., II, 446.
165 " Mr. Doben and Sir Thomas Janssen, concerning Palatines shipped off to Holland, some 2,000 and upwards, desire Mr. Dayrolle who is to prepare a list and may have orders to take care of supervising, and allowing 5 guilders a head, and deducting for such as do not appear." P. R. 0., S. P. 11/36 (September 16, 1709).
166 P. R. 0., S. P. 44/107, 267.
167 P.R. 0., S. P. 44/1o8, 156, 57.
Page 80: In the crowded quarters and with meager sustenance, the Palatines had fallen prey to fevers and plagues. Death wrought havoc in their ranks in spite of their hardiness. It is not known how many died in their encampment at Blackheath and elsewhere in London, but the number must have been nearly a thousand.", With all reasonable calculations and deductions made, it seems probable that the descendants of several thousands of the Palatines are among the English population today.
Now when the fruits of Penn's advertising campaign were finally ripening, where was Penn's proposal to take the Palatines off the hands of the government? Unfortunately, Penn was in no financial position to send the Palatines to his colony in 1709. He had suffered a nine months' imprisonment in 1708 for a 10,500 pound debt dishonestly claimed by former friends. (169) Penn was finally released from his debt to the Fords, but his expenses were heavy and his province was under mortgage to friends, who had aided him. Indeed for some years he had been negotiating with the British Ministry for the sale of his proprietorship. (170) This undoubtedly accounted for the small part taken by Penn in disposing of the Palatines in London in 1709.
From the difficulties described in this chapter it should be evident that the British government did not plan for this large Palatine immigration in 1709. It prayed for immigration as a general blessing, but this avalanche of people was like a flood instead of rain. The government's strenuous efforts to stop the movement and the generous attitude it maintained stood in sharp contrast to the conduct of the proprietors of English
168 Das verlangte nicbt erlangte Canaan, I 13; Goebel, " Briefe" in op. cit., 187.
169 Janney, op. cit., 508. The Board of Trade's efforts to settle in 1708 the Pennsylvania-Maryland boundary dispute were delayed by Penn "being under restraint." C. C. 1706 1709, 711.
170 Ibid., 509, 522, 525. The colony was mortgaged for 6,600 pounds in 1708. Penn asked 20,000 pounds of the British government for the surrender of his rights. P. R. 0., C. 0. 5/1265, 208; C. C. 1720-1721. 208.
Page 81: colonies, who were largely responsible for the emigration. The proposals to settle the Palatines discussed so far were for the most part discarded in favor of more promising ventures. Proposals to send Palatines to Ireland, Carolina and New York were in the latter category, and the large bands of emigrants transported there justify special attention to their adventures.
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