Three Rivers
History From America's Most Famous Valleys

Appendix to Grenville Tremains's Address

Images contributed by Jerod Rosman.

Note 1 -- When Andre's remains were removed in 1821, from their burial place in this country, a young peach tree was found growing out of the grave.

Note 2 -- Remarks of Chief Justice Marshall: "Andre having been unquestionably a spy,and his sentence consequently just; and the plot in which he had engaged having threatened consequences the most fatal to America, his execution, had he been an ordinary person, would certainly have been viewed with cold indifference, but he was not an ordinary person. It would seem that art ahd been successfully employed in the embellishment of those fascinating qualities which nature had profusely lavished on him.

"Possessed of a find person and an excellent understanding, he had united the polish of a court, and the refinements given by education, to the heroism of a soldier." * * * * * * * *

Note 3 -- A brother of Andre's was knighted by the king of England to remove the stain which was supposed to attach to the family on account of the mode of Andre's death.

Note 4 -- Letter from Mr. Andre to Miss Seward. Sargent's Life of Andre, page 21:

"London, October 19, 1769.
"From the midst of books, papers, bills, and other implements of gain, let me lift up my drowsy had awhile to converse with dear Julia. And first, as I know she has a fervent wish to see me a quilldriver, I must tell her, that I begin, as people are wont to do, to look upon my future profession with great partiality. I no longer see it in so disadvantageous a light. Instead of figuring a merchant as a middle aged man, with a bob-wig, a rough beard, in snuff-colored clothes, grasping a guinea in his red hand, I conceive a comely young man, with a tolerable pigtail, wielding a pen with all the noble fierceness of the Duke of Marlborough brandishing a truncheon upon a signpost, surrounded with types and emblems, and canopied with cornucopias that disembogue their stores upon his head; Mercuries reclined upon bales of goods; Genil playing with pens, ink and paper; while, in perspective, his gorgeous vessels, "Launched on the bosom of the silver Thames," are wafting to distant lands the produce of this commercial nation. Thus all the mercantile glories crowd on my fancy emblazoned in the most refulgent coloring of an ardent imagination. Borne on her soaring pinions I wing my flight to the time when Heaven shall have crowned my labors with success and opulence. I see sumptuous palaces rising to receive me; I see orphans and widows, and painters, and fiddlers, and poets and builders, protected and encouraged; and when the fabric is pretty nearly finished by my shattered pericranium, I cast my eyes around and find John Andre by a small coal fire, in a gloomy compting house in Warnford, Court, nothing so little as what he has been making himself, and, in all probability, never to be much more than he is at present. But Oh, my dear Honora! It is for they sake only I wish for wealth. * * * You say she was somewhat better at the time you wrote last. I must flatter myself that she will soon be without any remains of this threatening disease. It is seven o'clock; you and Honora, with two or three more select friends, are now probably encircling your dressing room fireplace. What would I not give to enlarge that circle! The idea of a clean hearth,and a snug circle round it, formed by a few select friends, transport me. You seem combined together against the inclemency of the weather, the hurry, bustle, ceremony, censoriousness and envy of the world. The purity, the warmth, the kindly influence of fire -- to all for whom it is kindled -- is a good emblem of the friendship of such amiable minds as Julia's and her Honora's. Since I cannot be there in reality, p;ray imagine me with you; admit me to your conversationes -- think how I wish for the blessing of joining the! and be persuaded that I take part in all your pleasures, in the dear hope, that ere very long, your blazing hearth will burn again for me. Pray keep me a place; let the poker, tongs or shovel, represent me. But you have Dutch titles, which are infinitely better; so let Moses, or Aaron, or Balaam's ass, be my representative. But time calls me to Chapton. I quit you abruptly till tomorrow, when if I do not feat the nonsense I have been writing, I may, perhaps, increase its quantity. Signora Cynthia is in clouded majesty. Silvered with her beams, I am about to jog to Clapton upon my own stumps; musing as I homeward plod my way -- ah! need I name the subject of my contemplations?"

Note 5 -- The important consequence of this cannonade was not understood, when the following note was written by colonel Lamb:

West Point, 20 September, 1780.
Sir -- I have sent the ammunition you requested, but, at the same time, I wish there may not be a wanton waste of it, as we have little to spare. Firing at a ship with a four pounder is, in my opinion, a waste of powder, as the damage she will sustain is not equal to the expense. Whenever applications are made for ammunition, they must be made through the commanding officer of artillery, at the post where it is wanted. I am, sir, yours, etc., John Lamb

Col. Livingston.

Note 6 -- Papers found on Major Andre's person when captured.


[Pass for the use of Andre. In Arnold's handwriting.]
Headquarters, Robinsons' House.
Sept'r 22d, 1780.
Permit Mr. John Anderson to pass the guards to White Plains, or below if he chuses, he being on public business by my direction.
B. Arnold, M. Gen'l.
Indorsed: Arnold to John Anderson -- Pass. 22 Sept., 1780.)

[Artillery Orders]
(Disposition of the Garrison at West Point, in case of an alarm -- In Arnold's handwriting.)

Wt. Point, Sept. 5th, 1780.

Artillery Orders;
The following disposition of the corps is to take place, in case of an alarm:
Capt. Dannils, with his company, at Fort Putnam, and to detach an officer with 12 men to Wylly's Redoubt; a non-commissioned officer with 3 men, to Webb's Redoubt,and a like number to Redoubt No. 4; Captain Thomas' company to repair to Fort Arnold; Captain Simmons and company to remain at the North and South Redoubts, at the east side of the river, until further orders.

Lieut. Barber, with 20 men of Capt. Jackson's company, will repair to Constitution Island; the remainder of the company, with Lieut. Masons, will repair to Arnold.

Capt. Lieut. George and Lieut. Blake, with 20 men of Capt. Treadwill's company, will repair to Redoubt No. 1 and 2; the remainder of the company will be sent to Fort Arnold.

Lieut. Jones's company, with Lieut. Fisk, to repair to the South Battery. The Chain Battery, Sherburn's Redoubt, and the Brass Field pieces will be manned from Fort Arnold, as occasion may require.

The commissary and the Conductor of Military stores will, in turn, wait upon the commanding officer of Artillery for orders.

The Artificers in the garrison (agreeable to former orders) will repair to Fort Arnold, and there receive further orders from the Commanding Officer of Artillery, J. Bauman, Major Comm't Artillery.

(Indorsed: Artillery Orders, Sept. 5, 1780.)


(Estimate of the Strength of the Garrison, Sept 1780 -- In Arnold's handwriting.)
Estimate of the forces at Wt. Point and its dependencies, Sept 13th, 1780:
A brigade of Massachusetts Militia and two Regiments of Rank and File,
New Hampshire, inclusive of 166 Batteaux Men at Verplancks and Stoney Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .992
On command and extra service at Fish Kills, New Windso, &c., &c., who may be called in occasionally. . . . . . . . . .852
Three Regiments of Connecticut Militia, under the command of Colonel Wells, on the lines near No Castle. . . . . . . 488
A Detachment of New York Levies on the lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115


Militia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2,447

Colonel Lamb's Regiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Colonel Livingston, at Verplanck and Stoney Pts. . . . . . . . 80


Continental. . . . . . . . . . .247

Colonel Sheldon's Dragoon on the lines, about one half mounted . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Batteaux Men and Artificers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250

Total 3,086

(Indorsed: Estimate of the foce at West Point and its dependencies, Sept., 1780)


(Estimate of the Force necessary to completely Man the Works.--In Arnold's handwriting.)

Estimate of the number of men necessary to Man the works at Wst. Point and in the vicinity.

Fort Arnold. . . . 620
Fort Putnam . . . .450
Fort Wyllys. . . . 140
Fort Webb. . . . .140
Redoubt No. l. . . . . . 150
Redoubt No. 2. . . . .150
Redoubt No. 3. . . . .120
Redoubt No. 4. . . .100
Redoubt No. 5. . . . 130
Redoubt No. 6. . . . 110
Redoubt No. 7l l l l l 78
North Redoubt. . . . .120
South Redoubt. . . . .130
Total. . . . .2,438

Villepauche, Engineer.

N. B. -- The artillerymen are not included int he above estimate.

(Indorsed: Estimate of Men to Man the Works at West Point, &c., Sept., 1780.)


(Remarks on Works at West Point, September, 1790 -- In Arnold's handwriting.)

Fort Arnold is built of dry fascines and wood, is in a ruinous condition, incomplete and subject to take fire from shells or carcasses.

Fort Putnam, stone wanting great repairs; the wall on the east side broke down, and rebuilding from the foundation at the west and south side; have been a chevaus de frise on the west side broke in many places. The east side open, two Bomb Proofs and Provision Magazine in the Fort, and slight wooden Barrack. A commanding piece of ground, 500 yards west between the Fort and No. 4 -- or Rocky Hill.

Fort Webb, built of fascines and wood; a slight work, very dry and liable to be set on fire, as the approaches are very easy, without defenses, save a slight abattis.

Fort Wylly's, built of stone; five feet high, the work above plank filled with earth; the stone work 15 feet; the earth nine feet thick. No Bomb Proofs; the Batteries without the Fort.

Redoubt No. 1. On the south side; wood nine feet; the west, north and east sides four feet thick; no cannon in the works; a slight and single abattis; no ditch or picket; cannon on two Batteries; no Bomb Proofs.

Redoubt No. 2. The same as No. 1. No Bomb Proofs.

Redoubt No. 3. A slight woodwork three feet thick; very dry; no Bomb Proofs; a single abattis; the wrk easily set on fire; no cannon.

Redoubt No. 4. A wooden work about ten feet high and four or five feet thick; the est side faced with a stone wall eight feet high and four feet thick; no Bomb Proof; two six pounders; a slight abbatis; a commanding piece of ground 500 yards west.

The North Redoubt on the east side built of stone, four feet high; above the stone, wood filled in with earth; very dry; no ditch; a Bomb Proof; three Batteries with out the Fort, a poor abattis; a rising piece of ground 500 yards south; the approaches under cover to within twenty yards; the work easily fired with faggots dipt in pitch, etc.

South Redoubt much the same as the North; a commanding peice of ground 500 yards due east; three Batteries without the Fort.

(Indorsed: Remarks on Works at West Point, a copy to be transmitted to his Excellency General Washington.)


(Copy of a State of Matters laid before a Council of War, by General Washington Sept. 6, 1780. -- In Arnold's handwriting.)

At a Council of War, held in Camp, Bergen county, Sept. 6, 1780.

Present--The Commander-in-Chief.

The Commander-in-Chief states to the Council that, since he had the honor of laying before the General Officers, at Morristown, the 6th of June last, a general view of our circumstances, several important events have occurred, which have materially changed the prospects of the campaign.

That the succor expected from France, instead of coming out in one body, and producing a national superiority in these seas, has been divided into two divisions, the first of which, only consisting of seven ships of the line, on forty-four, and three smaller, frigates, with five thousand land forces, had arrived at Rhode Island.

That a re-enforcement of six ships of the line from England having re-enforced the enemy, had made their Naval Force in these seas amount to nine sail of the line, two fifties, two forty-fours, and a number of smaller frigates, a force completely superior to that of our allies, and which has, in consequence, held them blocked up in the harbor of Rhode Island till the 29th ult., at which period the British fleet disappeared, and no advice of them has since been received.

That accounts received by the alliance frigate, which left France in July, announces the Second Division to be confined in Brest, with several other ships, by a British fleet of thirty two sail of the line, and a fleet of the allies of thirty six or thirty eight ships of the line, ready to put to sea from Cadiz to relieve the port of Brest.

The most of the States, in their answers to the requisitions made of them, give the strongest assurances of doing everything in their power to furnish the men and supplies required for the expected cooperation.

The effect of which, however, has been far short of our expectations, for not much above one third of the levies demanded for the Continental Battalions, nor above the same proportion of Militia, have been assembled, and the supplies have been so inadequate that there was a necessity for dismissing all the Militia, whose immediate services could be dispensed with, to lessen our consumption, notwithstanding which the troops now in field are severely suffering for want of provisions.

That the army at this post and in the vicinity, in operating force, consists of 10,400 Continental troops and about 400 Militia, besides which is a regiment of Continental troops of about 500 at Rhode Island, left there for the assistance of our allies, against any attempt of the enemy that way; the two Connecticut State regiments, amounting to 800, at North Castle.

That the time of service for which the levies are engaged will expire the first of January, which, if not replaced, allowing for the usual casualties, will reduce the Continental Army to less than 6,000.

That since the state to the council above referred to, the enemy have brought a detachment of about 3,000 men from Charles Town to New York, which makes the present operating force in this quarter between ten and eleven thousand men.

That the enemies' force now in the southern States has not been lately ascertained by any distinct accounts, but the General supposes it cannot be less than 7,000 (of which about 2,000 are at Savannah), in this estimate the diminution by the casualties of the climate is supposed to be equal to the increase of force derived from the disaffected. That added to the loss of Charles Town and its garrison, accounts of a recent misfortune are just arrived from Major General Gates, giving advice of a general action which happened on the 16th of August, near Campden, in which the army under his command met with a total defeat, and, in all probability, the whole of the Continental troops, and a considerable part of the Militia would be cut off.

That the State of Virginia has been sometime exerting itself to raise a body of 3,000 troops to serve till the end of December, 1781, but how far it has succeeded is not known.

That Maryland had resolved to raise 2,000 men, of which a sufficient number to compose one battalion, was to have come to this army. The remainder to recruit the Maryland line, but in consequence of the late advices,and order has been sent to march the whole southward.

That the enemies' force in Canada, Halifax, St. Augustine and at Penobscot, remains much the same as stated in the preceding Council.

That there is still reason to believe the Court of France will prosecute its original intention of giving effectual succor to this country, as soon as circumstances will permit; and it is hoped the second division will certainly arrive in the course of the fall. That a fleet greatly superior to that of the enemy in the West Indies, and a formidable land force had sailed some time since form Martinique to make a combined attack upon the Island of Jamaica, that there is a possibility of a re-enforcement from this quarter also, to the fleet of our ally in Rhode Island.

The Commander-in-Chief having thus given the Council a full view of our present situation and future prospects, requests the opinion of each member, in writing, what plan it will be advisable to pursue; to what objects our attention ought to be directed in the course of this fall and winter, taking into consideration the alternative of having or not having a naval superiority; whether any offensive operations can be immediately undertaken and against what point; what ought to be our immediate preparations and dispositions, particularly whether we can afford or ought to send any reinforcements from this army to the Southern States,and to what amount; the General requests to be favored with these opinions by the 10th instant at farthest.

(Indorsed: Copy of a Council of War held Sept. 6th 1780.)

Note 7 -- So long a time has elapsed since the documents here referred to were originally published, that they had been very generally forgotten; and as they are important to a correct judgment of the conduct and motives of the captors of Andre, on which even Mr. Sparks, with less than his scrupulous regard for exact justice, has thrown down unmerited distrust, it may not be amiss to reprint them in this connection. They were originally published in February and March, 1817, immediately after the remarks of Major Tallmadge in Congress.

Certificate of Inhabitants of Westchester County.

"We, the subscribers, inhabitants of the county of Westchester, do certify, that during the Revolutionary war, we were well acquainted with Isaac Van Wart, David Williams and John Paulding, who arrested Major Andre; and that at no time during the Revolutionary war, was any suspicion entertained by their neighbors or acquaintances, that they or either of them held any undue intercourse with the enemy.

"On the contrary, they were universally esteemed, and taken to be ardent and faithful in the cause of the country.

"We further certify, that the said Paulding and Williams are not now resident among us, but that Isaac Van Wart is a respectable freeholder of the town of Mount Pleasant: that we are well acquainted with him; and we do not hesitate to declare our belief that there is not an individual in the county of Westchester, acquainted with Isaac Van Wart, who would hesitate to describe him as a man whose integrity is as unimpeachable as his veracity is undoubted. In these respects no man in the county of Westchester is his superior.

Isaac Van Wart's Affidavit

"Isaac Van Wart, of the town of Mount Pleasant, in the county of Westchester, being duly sworn, doth depose and say that he is one of the three persons who arrested Major Andre during the American Revolutionary War, and conducted him to the American camp. That he, this deponent, together with David Williams and John Paulding, had secreted themselves at the side of the highway, for the purpose of detecting any person coming from or having unlawful intercourse with the enemy, being between the two armies -- a service not uncommon in those times. That this deponent and his companions were armed with muskets, and, upon seeing Major Andre approach the place where they were concealed, they rose and presented their muskets at him and required him to stop, which he did. He then asked them whether they belonged to his party? and then they asked him which party was his party? to which he replied, 'the lower party.' Upon which they -- deeming a little stratagem, under such circumstances, not only justifiable, but necessary -- gave him to understand that they were of his party; upon which he joyfully declared himself to be a British officer, and told them that he had been out on a very particular business. Having ascertained thus much, this deponent and his companions undeceived him as to their characters, declaring themselves Americans, and that he must consider himself their prisoner. Upon this, with seeming unconcern, he said he had a pass from General Arnold, which he exhibited, and then insisted on their permitting him to proceed; but they told him that, as he had confessed himself to be a British officer, they deemed it to be their duty to convey him to the American camp, and then took him into a wood, a short distance from the highway, in order to guard against being surprised by parties of the enemy, who were frequently reconnoitering in that neighborhood.

That when they had him in the wood they proceeded to search him, for the purpose of ascertaining who and what he was, and found inside of his stockings and boots, next to his bare foot, papers, which satisfied them that he was a spy. Major Andre now showed them his gold watch, and remarked that it was evidence of his being a gentleman, and also promised to make them say reward they might name, if they would but permit him to proceed, which they refused.

He then told them that if they doubted the fulfillment of his promise, they might conceal him in some secret place, and keep him there until they could send to New York and receive their reward. And this deponent expressly declares that every offer made by Major Andre to them was promptly and resolutely refused. And, as for himself, he solemnly declares that he had not, and he does most sincerely believe that Paulding and Williams had not, and intention of plundering the prisoner, nor did they confer with each other, or even hesitate whether they should accept his promises; but on the contrary, they were, in the opinion of this deponent, governed, like himself, by a deep interest in the cause of the country and a strong sense of duty. And this deponent further says that he never visited the British camp, nor does he believe or suspect that either Paulding or Williams ever did, except that Paulding was once, before Andre's capture, and once afterward, made a prisoner by the British, as this deponent has been informed and believes. And this deponent for himself expressly denies that he ever held any unlawful traffic, or any intercourse whatever, with the enemy.

And--appealing solemnly to that Omniscient Being at whose tribunal he must soon appear--he doth expressly declare that all accusations, charging him therewith are utterly untrue. ------ Isaac Van Wart.
Sworn before me, this 28th day of January, 1817.
Jacob Radcliffe, Major

John Paulding's Affidavit.

John Paulding, of the county of Westchester, one of the persons who took Major Andre, being duly sworn, saith that he was three times, during the Revolutionary War, a prisoner with the enemy; the first time he was taken at the White Plains when under the command of Captain Requa, and carried to New York and confined in the Sugar-House. The second time he was taken near Tarrytown, when under the command of Lieutenant Peacock, and confined in the North Dutch Church, in New York; that both these times he escaped, and the last of them only four days before the capture of Andre; that the last time he was taken he and his companions, Van Wart and Williams, among other articles which they took from Major Andre, were his watch, horse, saddle and bridle, and which they retained as price; that they delivered over Andre, with the papers found on him, to Col. Jameson, who commanded on the lines; that shortly thereafter they were summoned to appear as witnesses at the headquarters of General Washington at Tappan; that they were at Tappan some days, and examined as witnesses before the court-martial on the trial of Smith, who brought Andre ashore from on board the sloop of war; that while there, Col. William S. Smith redeemed the watch from them for thirty guineas; which, and the money received for the horse, saddle and bridle, they divided equally among themselves and four other persons, who belonged to their party, but when Andre was taken, were about half a mile off, keeping a lookout on a hill; that Andre had no gold or silver with him, but only some Continental bills, to the amount of about eighty dollars; that the medals given to him and Van Wart and Williams, by congress, were presented to them by General Washington, when the army was encamped at Verplanck's Point, and that they on the occasion dined at his table; that Williams removed some years ago from Westchester county to the northern part of the State, but where particularly, the deponent does not know. And the deponent, referring to the affidavit of Van Wart, taken on the 18th of January last, and which he has read, says that the same is in substance true. - - - - John Paulding

Sworn before me, this 6th day of May, 1817. Charles G. Van Wyck, Master in Chancery.

Autobiography of David Williams.

The following biography of David Williams appeared in the Albany Daily Advertiser, in January preceding his death, said to have been dictated by himself:

"I was born in Tarrytown, then called Philips' Manor, Westchester county, New York, October 21st, 1754. I entered the army in 1775, at the age of 21, and was under General Montgomery at the siege of Fort St. Johns, and afterward on board the flat bottomed boats to carry provisions, etc.; and served out my time which was six months; I then went, listed again in the spring of 1776, and continued in the service by different enlistments, as a New York militiaman, until 1779. In 1778, when in Capt. Acker's company of New York militia, at Tarrytown, I asked his permission to take a walk in the company with William Van Wart, a boy sixteen or seventeen years old; I proceeded to the crossroads on Tompkins' ridge; stood looking a few moments; saw five men coming, they had arms; we jumped over a stone fence and concealed ourselves in a corner of it; observed that they were armed with two muskets and three pistols; they came so nigh that we recognized tow of them, vix.: William Underhill and William Mosher, who were Tories, and know to be of LeLancy's corps; when they came within proper distance, I said to my companion, 'Billy, neck or no joint!' I then said aloud as if speaking to a number, with a view of intimidating them, 'Men, make ready!' They stopped immediately; I told them to ground their arms, which they did; I then said, 'March away; they did so; I then jumped over the fence, secured their arms, and made them march before us to our quarters; I continued in the service until a week or ten days before the year 1780. In December, 1779, Captain Daniel Williams, who was commander of our company, mounted us on horses, and we went to Morrisania, Westchester county. We swept all Morrisania clear; took probably $5,000 worth of property; returned to Tarrytown and quartered at Young's house. My feet being frozen, my uncle, Martinus Van Wart, took me to his house; I told Captain Williams that the enemy would soon be at Young's, and that if he remained there he would be on his way to Morrisania before morning; he paid no attention to my remarks--he did not believe me; but in the course of the night a woman came to my uncle's crying, 'Uncle Martinus! Uncle Martinus!' The truth was, the British had surrounded Young's house, made prisoners of all the company except two, and burnt the barn. Having got well of my frozen feet, on the 3d of June, 1780, we were all driven from Tarrytown to the upper part of Westchester county, in the town of Salem. We belonged to no organized company at all; were under no command, and worked for our board of johnnycake. Isaac Van Wart, who was a cousin of mine (the father of Williams and mother of Van Wart were brother and sister), Nicholas Storms and myself went to Tarrytown on a visit; we carried our muskets with us, and on our way took a Quaker who said he was going to New York after salt and other things. The Quaker was taken before the American Authority and acquitted.

Andre being searched.

"In July or August a number of persons, of whom I was one, went on a visit to our friends in Tarrytown, and while on his way took ten head of cattle, which some refugees were driving to New York, and, on examination before the authority, the cattle were restored to their right owners, as they pleaded innocence, saying they were stolen from them. I then returned to Salem, and worked with a Mr. Benedict for my board, until the 22d of September. It was about one o'clock P. M., as I was standing in the door with Mr. Benedict's daughter (who was afterward my wife), when I saw six men coming; she remarked, 'They have got guns.' I jumped over a board fence and met them. 'Boys,' said I, 'were are your going?' They answered 'we are going to Tarrytown.' I then said, 'if you will wait until I get my gun I will go with you.' The names of the six persons were, Isaac Van Wart, John Paulding, William Williams, John Yerks and James Romer; the name of the sixth I have forgotten. We proceeded about fifteen miles that night, and slept in a hay barrack. In the morning we crossed Buttermilk hill, when John Paulding proposed to go to Isaac Reed's and get a pack of cards to divert ourselves with. After procuring them we went out to Davis' hill, where we separated, leaving four on the hill and three, viz., Van Wart, Paulding and myself, proceeded on the Tarrytown road, and commenced playing cards three handed, that is, each one for himself. We had not been playing more than an hour, when we heard a horse galloping across a bridge but a few yards from us; which of us spoke I do not remember, but one of us said, 'there comes a trader going to New York.' We stepped out from our concealment and stopped him. 'My lad,' said he, 'I hope you belong to our party.' We asked him 'what party?' he replied, 'the lower party.' We told him 'we did.' He then said, 'I am a British officer, have been up the country on particular business, and would not wish to be detained a minute,' and as a token to convince us he was a gentleman, he pulled out and showed us his gold watch; we then told him we were Americans. 'God bless my soul,' said he, 'a man must do anything these times to get along,' and then showed us Arnold's pass. We told him it would not satisfy us without searching him. 'My lad,' said he, 'you will bring yourselves into trouble.' We answered 'we did not fear it,' and conducted him about seventy rods into the woods. My comrades appointed me to search him; commencing with his hat, I searched his person effectually, but found nothing until I pulled off his boot, when we discovered that something was concealed in his stocking. Paulding caught hold of his foot and exclaimed, 'by G-d, here it is!' I pulled off his stocking, and inside of it, next to the sole of his foot, found three half sheets of paper enclosed in another half sheet which was endorsed 'West Point;' and on pulling off the other boot and stocking, I found three like paper, enclosed and endorsed as the other On reading them, one of my companions said, 'by G-d, he is a spy!; We then asked him where he got those paper? he told us, 'of a man at Pine's bridge, but he said 'he did not know his name.' He offered us his gold watch, his horse, saddle, bridle and 100 guineas, if we would let him go; we told him' no unless he would inform us where he got the papers.' He answered us as before, but increased his offer to 1,000 guineas, his horse, etc.; we told him again we would not let him go; he then said, 'gentlemen, I will give you 10,000 guineas' [nearly $50,000] 'and as many dry goods as you will ask; conceal me in any place of safety while you can send to New York with an order to Sir Henry Clinton from me, and the goods and money will be procured so that you can get them unmolested.' [Paulding then told him, as he stated on the trial of Joshua H. Smith, a few days after the arrest]: 'No, by G-d, if you would give us 10,000 guineas you should not stir a step; we are Americans, and above corruption, and go with us you must.' We then took him, about twelve miles, to Col. Jamison's quarters at North Castle."

Note 8. -- Letter of Col. Talmadge

[Written after Andre's death it displays the intimate relations that sprung up between the writer and Andre, and the natural commiseration which had arisen in the farmer's heart.]

Etching of house at Tappan where Andre was tried and convicted:
Jordan & Halpin Engravers after painting by Ver Bryck. reproduction ca 1830.

"Poor Andre, who has been under my charge almost ever since he was taken, has yesterday had his trial, and though his sentence is not known, a disgraceful death is no doubt allotted to him. By heavens! Colonel Web, I never saw a man whose fate I foresaw whom I so sincerely pitied! He is a young fellow of the greatest accomplishments, and was the prime minister of Sir Harry on all occasions. He has unbosomed his heart to me so fully, and, indeed, let me know almost every motive of his actions since he came out of his late mission, and he has endeared me to him exceedingly. Unfortunate man! He will undoubtedly suffer death tomorrow, and, though he knows his fate, seems to be as cheerful as though he were going to an assembly. I am sure he will go to the gallows less fearful for his fate, and with less concern than I shall behold the tragedy. Had he been tried by a court of ladies, he is so genteel, handsome and polite a young gentleman, that I am confident they would have acquitted him. But enough of Andre, who, though he dies lamented, falls justly."

The same officer in other communications upon the subject, says:

"From the moment that Andre made the disclosure of his name and true character, in his letter to the Commander-in-Chief, which he handed to me as soon as he had written it, down to the moment of his execution, I was almost constantly with him. I walked with him to the place of Execution, and parted with him under the gallows, overwhelmed with grief that so gallant an officer and so accomplished a gentleman should some to such an ignominious end. The ease and affability of his manner, polished by the refinement of good society, and a finished education, made him a most delightful companion. It often drew tears from my eyes to find him so agreeable in conversation on different subjects, when I reflected on his future fate and that, too, as I believed, so near at hand."

"When he came within sight of the gibbet, he appeared to be startled, and inquired, with some emotion, whether he was not to be shot. Being informed that the mode first appointed for his death could not consistently be altered, he exclaimed, 'How hard is my fate!' But immediately added, 'It will soon be over.' I then shook hands with him under the gallows, and retired."

Note 9. -- See Raymond's oration, delivered at Tarrytown October 7, 1853, on the completion of the monument erected by the young men of Westchester county to the captors of Major Andre.

Note 10. -- In Simms' History of Schoharie County and Border Wars of New York, p. 404, it is related, in connection with Sir John Johnson's invasion of this valley, that "Col. Johnson had with him a small mortar and a field piece, the latter a six pounder. The carriage for the cannon was carried in parts, and required screwing together." When the enemy approached the Lower Fort, to wit: the stone church with its massive tower, referred to in the original, it is related that the following incident occurred: "Col. Johnson halted, after crossing Fox's Creek. Preparations were now made to give the Americans a passing salute; the gun-carriage was screwed together, and the gun placed upon it. At this time it was supposed, by the men in the tower, from the ease with which the gun was carried, and the manner of the transportation in a wagon, to be a 'peeled log,' placed with the design of frightening its inmates to surrender the fort. On applying the linstock it twice flashed, and the Americans were the more confirmed in their opinion that the fire was 'playing possum.' but the third application of the match was followed by a peal of war's thunder, which sent a ball through one side of the roof of the church, and lodged it in a heavy rafter in the opposite side."This ball is now in the possession of a merchant in Schoharie.

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