History From America's Most Famous Valleys
Life and Times of
Sir William Johnson, Bart.,
by William L. Stone
Albany: J. Munsell, 78 State Street, 1865.
APPENDIX No 4 .
Private Manuscript Diary, kept by Sir William Johnson, on his Journey to and from Detroit-1761.
"Saturday 4th July, 1761.-At a meeting with all the Mohawks at my house, I acquainted them of my journey to Detroit, in order to call a meeting of the Ottawa Confederacy, and other nations of Indians, inhabiting those parts, with whom I am directed by General Amherst, to settle and establish a firm and lasting treaty; also to regulate the trade at the several posts in the Indian country. After that, spoke to them, and very strongly recommended a friendly behavior toward the king's subjects in my absence, and to follow their hunting, &c. They were much pleased with my acquainting
It is, perhaps, unnecessary to remind the reader, that this diary -was written hastily-in the confusion of camp life-ands was, moreover, designed for no eye but the writer's ; hence the carelessness of the style. The diary is written in a small leather covered book, very similar to our modern pocket diaries-exactly suited to the end for which it was designed, to be carried in the pocket, and taken out whenever the writer wished to jot down a thought. These remarks apply equally to Sir William's journal while oil his journey to Detroit,-both being written in the same book.
them of the cause of so long a journey, and wished me all success, but said they were very uneasy for my safety, there being several nations of Indians, through whose country I must pass, very much attached to the French interest; that notwithstanding their late fair promises, there were several of the Six Nations, also, not to be much trusted at present. They then assured me they would strictly follow my advice, by endeavoring all in their power, to prevent their young men committing any irregularities, or differing with any of the soldiers or inhabitants. They then said a great deal concerning their lands, and begged most earnestly that there might be a stop put to their brethren pressing and teasing them for their lands which were now so clipped about on every side, that they could scarce live by hunting on what was now left. I assured them no land could be now taken from them, without being fairly purchased from them, his majesty having giving it particularly in charge to his governors, to prevent any people's taking up land without their consent, and payment made them for it. They expressed much satisfaction at it, and parted.
"Sunday July 5th 1761.-I set off from Fort Johnson for Detroit, accompanied only by my son John Johnson, and Lieutenant Guy Johnson of the Independents. Dined at Hannis Eeil's; there left a letter for young Captain Fry, and four commissions for himself and officers. Arrived at Canajoharie about 10 at night. Next morning, being Monday, called the Indians of that village together at my quarters, to whom I spoke as to the Mohawks. They were full of acknowledgment, and returned many thanks for the admonitions I gave them, and assured me they would endeavor, all in their power, to follow them and live in friendship with their neighbors and others. They concluded with great complaints against some of the inhabitants, who are daily endeavoring to get away their lands from them, and that, for others living at York, &c., whom they never saw or knew anything of. They then delivered a good belt of wampum, and three strings, [of the same,] to confirm what they had said, and to beg that their lands might be left to themselves, being already scarce enough to live on.
Gave a belt and three strings.
I gave them the same answer on that head, as I did to the Lower Mohawks, and ended.---That evening, left Canajoharie, and arrived at the German Flats, where I met about thirty Oneida and Tuscarora chiefs, who were going to my house, in order to make up, if possible, the murder of one Grustavus Franks who was lately killed by one of their nation.
"Tuesday 7th.-They met at my quarters, and spoke: with several belts of wampum, as may be seen in the minutes of that meeting, or in the Indian records. This day my five boats arrived here, and set off immediately.
"Wednesday 8th.-I set off and arrived at Oriske field that night, where, not finding my boats, was obliged to lie out in the open air without any manner of covering or conveniency. Next day, being Thursday 9th, I arrived at Fort Stanwix about 12 o'clock; dined with Major Campbell, and lodged there.
"Friday 10th.- My boats with the greatest difficulty arrived, having been obliged to drag them most of the-way, on account of the lowness of the water. Ordered them over, and got them repaired in the best manner I could, and waited until the sluices were supplied with water to carry our boats down, which was not till Saturday noon, and then no farther than Bull's Fort, where we encamped in a burying ground because it was clear.
"Sunday 12th.-Opened the sluices, but for want of water, could not get the boats all through the sluice; so were obliged to encamp within one hundred yards of our last encampment. Some artillery boats near us, which have been five days going four miles.
"13th Opened the sluices, and with the greatest difficulty got over the smallest battoe; after which proceeded to Canada creek the rest of the boats being obliged to halt about one and a half miles behind. Here Colonel Eyre overtook and delivered me a letter from the general, with intelligence from Captain Campbell, commanding at Detroit, concerning some design of the Indians rising against the English, which was corroborated by accounts sent me by two Mohawk lads, Joseph and David from the Canajoharie chiefs, who had it from one of their people, arrived from a place beyond the Chenusio, where he has lived several years. This was confirmed by a belt of wampum. They begged that I would not proceed, as it must be very dangerous to pass through the country of nations, who would not be now our friends. They were also told by the informant, that all Indians from whence he came, looked upon, and called them, the Mohawks, Englishmen; and that they would soon fall upon them, for their attachment to us. The two messengers staid with me that night. I dispatched them next morning with a bolt in return for theirs, and this answer, viz ; that I took very friendly their sending me the intelligence, they received from one of their people, and that I hoped the Indians in that quarter or any other, would consider their interest more than [consent?] to a thing which must inevitably bring on their ruin; that if they had any such wild wicked design in view, I did not doubt but my presence among them might put a stop to it; therefore was determined to proceed with all the dispatch possible. As to any nation attempting to destroy them, for their attachment to the English, they might laugh at it, and be assured that as long as they, or any other nations, continued our friends, we would protect them from any enemies. Gave them some money for their journey, and dispatched them.
"14th.-We set off about nine in the morning, and encamped about a mile below the Oak Field.
"15th-Decamped, and with much difficulty arrived and encamped opposite the block house.
"Thursday 16th.-Sent off the baggage boat, and went up in a whale boat toward the Oneida Old Castle, in order to meet with the chiefs of that place, who were sent for the night before; but they not being at home, I delivered what I had to say to one of their chiefs in the presence of several of their women, and the Reverend Mr. Oaum, whom I very strongly recommended to them, as I did, also, a friendly behavior toward all their brethren, that I might hear no more complaints against them on my return, nor from them against the officers, soldiers or others as usual. I then acquainted them that General Amherst had sent me, some time ago, medals for such persons as went to Canada with the army last year, which I was now ready to deliver, were the persons here to whom they belonged. As they were not, must keep them till I had an opportunity of delivering them myself, that no mistake might be committed. They seemed well pleased at Mr. Oaum's coming among them, and expressed a great desire of being instructed in the Christian religion. They also assured me they would communicate what I had said, to the rest, and added, they did not doubt their complying strictly to what I had recommended. They complained to me of their being in a very wretched situation at present, for the want of provisions; that although they were starving (which Mr. Oaum told me was the case), their brethren would not give them any provisions, I told them they should not depend upon that, but endeavor to support themselves by bunting, planting, &c. Then gave them a little money and parted. After that, I spoke to the trader there, about the prices of goods, and charged him at his peril, not to impose on any of them in trade. Then proceeded down the lake to Fort Brewerton, where we arrived at sunset. Supped with Captain Baugh, and encamped over the river, where some New York companies were also encamped.
"Friday 17th.-Early in the morning, Saquerisen, chief sachem of Ganoghsaragey, came to my tent, and begged I would let him have some powder for the support of his family, which were very poor. After ending what he bad to say, which was chiefly on the dearness of goods, and low prices of beaver furs, I asked him whether any deputies were sent by the Six Nations to Detroit or any other nations of Indians this spring or summer. He answered, there were some sent by the Senecas; that the Cayugas were to have sent some also, but on the arrival of one of the Cayugas in the Seneca country, he was told that it would not be prudent for him to go so far alone, so the Senecas went without him. On my asking him, what they were gone about, he told me that they were in behalf of the Six Nations to perform the ceremony of condolence for the Indians who were killed in the battle of Niagara in the year 1759, and after that, to strengthen and renew the old alliance between them. As none but the Senecas were sent among the western Indians, the Cayugas were sent to Cadaraqui to perform the same ceremony to the northern Indians living on the north side of the lake, for the losses they sustained at Niagara, and after that to renew their old alliances. This is what he told me, and that on their return, a meeting was to be called at Onondaga, at which the result of both embassies would be made known to the whole Confederacy. After this I let him know, he being one of their most sensible men, that the Senecas who went to Detroit were acting another part, and that their plot was discovered. Here told him as much of the intelligence sent by Captain Campbell, as I thought necessary, and then laid before him the madness of such an attempt, and the very fatal consequences of it to all their nation; and concluded with my advice to him and all of them, that if any such wicked design was intended, he and the rest of the Confederate part of them would immediately put a stop to it, otherwise it must inevitably bring on their ruin, which I was certain would be more agreeable to his majesty to avoid if possible. On hearing what I said, he seemed much surprised, and declared there was no such scheme agreed on by the Six Nations, nor such message sent by them to the Detroit or the Cadaraqui meeting if what I now told him was true it must come from the Seneca nation, and concluded by assuring me he would, oh his arrival at big castle, acquaint the rest of the sachems, and then fall on the best measures they could, to find what the Senecas had done at Detroit, and if, as they now heard, endeavor to put a stop to it. I sent a string of white wampum by an Onondaga young Indian, who came to me while talking to the Tuscarora sachem, to desire the Bunt and other chiefs of that nation to come to me at Oswego, in order to talk with them on business, as well as to deliver their medals to all those of that nation who accompanied the general last year to Canada. On my mentioning some particular chiefs, he told me they were gone on the invitation of the governor of Pennsylvania to a meeting there to be held. The Tuscarora sachem told me that his and the Oneida nation refused sending any to attend said meeting. I dispatched the messenger, gave him a dollar and stockings, and to the other, several silver trinkets and decamped at 9 o'clock. Arrived at the Three Rivers about 6 in the evening, where I encamped.
"Saturday 18th.-Rained very hard until 12 o'clock. Then set off for Oswego Falls, where we arrived about 5 o'clock. Supped with the officer, Mr. Malto, and bespoke another boat.
"Sunday 19th.-Set off for Oswego about 6 o'clock, with two boats, and arrived there about one. Dined at Major Duncan's mess. After dinner viewed the vessel I am to go in. I saw some Senecas or Chenusios come lately from Niagara; asked them whether the deputies were returned from Detroit. They said not when they left home, but were daily expected.
"Monday 20th.-Had several Swegatchie, Mississagey, and other Indians come to my tent, to whom I told the intent of my going to Detroit was to settle and establish a lasting peace and friendship with all nations of Indians who desired his majesty's protection. Also to regulate trade, and put it on the best footing possible at present, and desired they would acquaint all their people with what I now told them. They seemed vastly pleased with what I told them, and promised to deliver all I said to them on their return to their nation. They asked the reason of so many men here, and passing by with cannon. I told them some were for finishing the forts, others for garrisoning the several outposts surrendered to his Britannic Majesty by the capitulation, which by the lateness of the season could not be done last year; that the cannon were for the vessels and forts. I sent a string of wampum by Kayenqnego, a Chenusio Indian, to desire that a few sachems of his nation would meet me at Niagara, in five or six days at farthest. He set off in the afternoon, and promised to be at Chenusio in three days, for which I bought of Mr. Keikman a shroud, gartering, stockings, &c., for him as a present, and gave him a little money to buy provisions. In the evening, two Onondagas arrived, and let me know that forty of their nation were encamped about a mile from hence, and would be here in the morning to hear what I had to say to them. The vessel being ready to sail for Niagara, I desired the messengers to return and let the sachems know I impatiently waited their arrival. On which they set off.
"Tuesday 21st.-Got everything on board the vessel, then met the Onondaga and other chiefs. When assembled, I bid them welcome; condoled their late losses agreeably to custom; acquainted them with the reason of my not calling them to a general council since my return from Canada; and then let them know the reason of my going to Detroit, and told them I expected the Five Nations would have attended said meeting. Then advised them to a friendly behavior toward their brethren, and not to pay any regard to the reports of foolish, idle people, as they hitherto have too frequently done.-A Belt of Wampum. Then delivered the medals sent me by the general for those who went with us to Canada last year, being twenty-three in number.
"They then withdrew about an hour, and sent me word they were ready to answer.
"Present, Major Duncan, Captain Gray, several officers of the 55th and Gage's regiment, interpreters, &c.
"The speaker stood up, and went through the ceremony of condolence for the losses we sustained, and returned first many thanks for what I bad done, with three strings of wampum. He then pulled out a large, white belt, which I had given them formerly when going to Niagara, and repeated all I had said by said belt, viz: a good trade was promised, and good usage of them forever after, if they would exert themselves in conjunction with us against the enemy, which, they said, they had done by giving us Niagara as a salve for our wounds. Notwithstanding all this, they alleged they were very ill used and treated by our people in point of trade, and at the several posts, where they are roughly handled, very often without any cause. As this is so contrary to what they expected in case we conquered the French, they all entreated that they might be better used, or else they must think that what the French told them was true.-Laid down a large belt.
"BROTHER: We are surprised at your going to call a council at Detroit, when you know that the chief and only council fire burns at your house and Onondaga; besides these Indians you are going to, ought rather, as being aggressors, to come to you. You recommend it to us to mind our hunting and trade, and live in friendship with our brethren at the several posts. It is what we would be very desirous of, but they, by their behavior to us at the several posts, seem not to have any liking for us, and use us very ill at times without any cause, taking our women from us by violence, using them and us ill besides, and hindering us from fishing and hunting on our own grounds near the posts, and often taking what we catch or kill from us. This is not agreeable to the promises made us, or the friendship so long establishing between us and you. We beg, brother, you will interpose and see justice done us, and that there may be a fair trade carried On by your people; also interpreters allowed at the several posts, who may prevent misunderstandings happening between us and our brethren, for want of knowing what each other says.
"Brother: With regard to what you told us - concerning the intelligence sent from Detroit, and desiring us to take care how we entered into any such vile, dangerous schemes, and that we should not get drunk, or suffer our heads to turn, which would end in our ruin-we can only say, that we know nothing at all about any such plot; neither are we, or shall we get drunk or suffer our heads to grow giddy, but hold fast the covenant-chain, and hope you, on your part, will also hold it fast - then we may both live to be grey. This belt of yours shall be sent to the several nations, our allies, and acquaint them with what you say, and our resolutions now declared to you, which we expect will be a rule or precedent to them, when they are all acquainted therewith, you will receive a belt in return.
"Brother: Here is one of our people present, named Kanadacta, who had his hunting house near this place, plundered this last spring, while he was on the hunt, of thirty buck skins, two kettles, a gun, axes, &c., by some of the English going to Isle Royal. He hopes you will inquire into it, and get him some redress. He is now left quite naked thereby, as he has nothing to purchase clothing. -A String.
"Brother: I now speak at the desire of the warriors who came here to see you, and wish you a successful journey, and safe return. I am, on their behalf, to let you know they are much distressed for the want of ammunition to hunt and maintain their families by. Not being able to get any for love or money, they, therefore, by this large bunch of wampum, beg you will let them have a couple of casks to serve them with until you return, and lead in proportion, and be assured they will not forget your favor."- Gave a large Bunch of Wampum and ended.
"I then answered them thus:
"Brethren of Onondaga and others :-This belt you now lay before me by way of reminding me of the promises made you heretofore, w needless, because I have it on record, as well as your promises and conduct never to be forgotten. Your behavior last year, in many of your people leaving the general and me at Swegatchie after the reduction of Isle Royal, was so unbrotherlike, that neither the general nor myself could think of serving you, who left us, as heretofore: that and some other parts of your conduct, has occasioned our not fulfilling all that was promised you, so that you may blame yourselves, not us. However, if your promises now made of keeping fast hold of the covenant chain for the future be sincere (which will be your interest), you may expect we will, in such case, act a friendly part toward you, and allow you a plentiful trade, and not suffer any of our people to molest or use you ill. If they should undeservedly; they will be punished, for the general is determined that neither shall kill or hunt the other unpunished. A Belt.
"Brethren: As our conquests in this country are now great, by beating our common enemy, our trade and alliances of course must be more extensive than heretofore, and it will be necessary to have other meetings and places of trade, than Oswego and Onondaga. So that your surprise may now cease, when you see that we have agents for the management of Indian affairs in several quarters, viz: here at Pittsborough, Detroit and Canada, the better to keep up a good understanding with, and strengthen the extensive alliance now between us and the many nations of Indians who have, and are daily coming in to our interest; seeing it their interest to be friends with the English, it will be for your good to keep up a good understanding with them also. As to your people being abused, or ill treated at our posts, I fancy it must be owing to ill behavior in you when in liquor, wherefore [I] would recommend to you to leave off the immoderate use of it; and I am certain then you will not meet Gage's Light Infantry, and encamped. Our boats still behind. Captain Butler from Toronto arrived here, and gave a very good account of the behavior of the Mississagays, Chippavas, Michilimakinacs, &c., during their residence there, and by their speeches, and everything else, seemed to be very hearty in our interest. He is to set off from here on the morrow.
"Sunday 26th.- At seven in the morning, I set off with Colonel Eyre, Lieutenant Johnson, my son, and De Couagne, for the island, whereon the vessel is building for exploring the Lakes Huron and Michigan, which island is about two miles from Little Niagara, on the place where Shabear Jean Coeur lived. There is a house built within a quarter of mile of said place, by one Stirling,, for the use of the company, viz; Rutherford, Duncan, &c., who intend to monopolize the whole carrying-place, by virtue of a permit from General Amherst. The schooner, building upon the island, was in such forwardness as to be ready to launch in about ten days, but was put a stop to in order to build a boat, pinnace fashion, for Major Gladwin's service. Dined with John Dies, after which Colonel Eyre went in a boat to explore the Chippaway river-the entrance of which is about two miles above the Great Falls. In another branch of said river, our people found a great quantity of pine planks of several dimensions, sawed by hand, which they used in making the vessels. About 6 P. M., we set off from the post where Jean Coeur lived, and arrived at the fort of Niagara at 9 at night.
"Monday 27th.-Major Gladwin and I went to desire Major Walters to suspend a court martial, which was ordered to be held on one Ensign Hays, which he said he could [not] possibly agree to, BO the court martial sat. About 9 o'clock, an Onondaga Indian came and complained to me of John Abeel's cheating him; on which I sent the Indian, with the orderly sergeant, and a few lines, to Abeel, and made him do justice to the Indian, which, with a little money I gave him to buy provisions for his journey, pleased him greatly, as did also my acquainting him with the reason of my journey to Detroit. He greatly disapproved of the Chenussios' conduct, and said they were always a troublesome set of people. About 12 o'clock, took a walk into the Trader's Town, where I met Mabicomicot, chief of the Mississagays, with whom I had a little chat, and invited him to the fort. Dined with Major Walters. After dinner, Major Gladwin and I settled the number of men necessary to send, for garrisoning the several little outposts in the Indian country, viz; two subalterns and sixty men, which, with what men Campbell may spare, we judged sufficient for three posts, which Mr. Gladwin imagines is as much as he can visit this season. They are to set off and follow us as soon as boats and provisions can be got ready, so as not to delay the service. Captain Etherington was present at the time. I gave Major Gladwin, at the same time, two letters, the one for Mr. Croghan at Sandusky, the other for Captain Campbell at Detroit; with which he is to send an officer to-morrow, and a boat's crew to Sandusky, where he is to remain until Mr. Croghan arrives; then proceed to Detroit. The reason of my sending this express is, to have all those Indians acquainted with our coming there, so as not to surprise or alarm them. My boats not yet arrived. I ordered a battoe to be fitted up for my own use, there being no whale boats here, nor at Oswego, fit to go in.
"Tuesday 28th.-Had a meeting with several Chippaway chiefs, in the presence of Colonel Eyre, Major Walters, &c., Mr. De Couagne, interpreter,- which will appear by the records. An Onondaga Indian just arrived from Detroit with a trader, who was present at the meeting there, between the two Seneca messengers, the Chenundaddeys, Ottawas, &c., and told me the whole of what passed there. He says it was chiefly spoken in Shabear Jean Coeur's name, who, before [he was] taken, advised that step to be taken, in case the French should fall. He thinks some of the Ottawas are not yet well inclined to peace with us, but that the Wyandots asked the Onondaga whether his nation was concerned in the affair. He declared they were not, which pleased the others much. He tells me the two messengers are returned by the way of Ohio; they live at Garahuskaragey; one of their names is Tahaiadoris. The Onondaga, who came from Detroit, complained to me of his being wronged by one Stillman, in whose employ he was as battoe-man. Said Stillman agreed with him for £4 pr. month, victuals and drink; that he had served him faithfully, and could not get his pay, Stillman trumping up an account against him for £11.18. of which sum, he charges for five gallons of rum £10,-and delivered me said Stillman's account. I sent for him, in order to examine into the affair, but he is gone to the carrying-place. Major Walters made a long complaint to me of the disrespect showed him by his officers, and the partiality shown in behalf of Mr. Hays, tried yesterday by a court martial, and said if the general did not support him, he would desire to be relieved. About 5 o'clock, began to rain. No account yet of my battoes. This morning, the light infantry moved up to the carrying-place and propose to begin riding over some of their things to-morrow morning. This day; made out a speech to deliver the Senecas and Chnusios on their arrival here. I hourly expect them. Ordered some provisions this day for the Indians, viz; 11 loaves of 4 lbs. each, and 28 [pounds] pork. Supped with Captain Etherington.
"Wednesday 29th.-Fine weather. No account of my boats yet. Three French families arrived yesterday evening from Montreal, going to settle at Detroit. They saw nothing of my boats. This day, borrowed of William Knox, sutler, the sum of fifty-six pounds York currency; when we arrive at Detroit, he will make up as far as one hundred pounds, which I am to give him a draft for, on Ferrall Wade. Wrote this day, by Colonel Eyre, to General Amherst.
"Thursday 30th.-Fine weather; wind westerly. Colonel Eyre, Mr. Cox, and Mr. McAdam were to sail in the vessel for Oswego, which was loaded mostly with beaver skins, &c. This afternoon, I had the Chippaway and Mississagey sachems, who delivered me their answer to what I said to them the day before. I promised them some clothing to-morrow, and a little ammunition and provision to carry the families of those who go with me, back to their own country-also to send them a smith next fall to this place to mend their arms and working utensils.
"Friday 31st.-A fine morning. Colonel Eyre came to my room at 5 o'clock to take leave, the vessel waiting with a fair wind No account yet from the Senecas, whom I sent for from Oswego. Wrote Ferrall Wade by Colonel Eyre; also a letter to General Amherst per Colonel Eyre. In the afternoon delivered the present to the Chippaways and Mississageys, who were very thankful, and made the fairest promises that could be, of living forever in friendship with the English. They added, that on the return of their people, who were setting off for their country, their nation, on seeing the friendly usage they met with, would be convinced more and more of our brotherly regard for them, and would be the means of riveting them all firm to our interest. Then I spoke with some Chenundaddey Indians, just arrived from Detroit, and desired them to call upon me next morning, that I might send a message by them to their nation.
"Saturday August the lst.-The Chenundaddey Indians came to my quarters, when I delivered a belt of 7 rows of wampum, and, desired they would acquaint their nation of my coming to hold, a council in their town, where-1 desired they, the Wyandots, would summon all the surrounding nations as soon as possible, that I might be able to return before the bad season of the year came on. I also acquainted them by said belt of Major Gladwin being on his way thither, in order to garrison the several French posts, surrendered to us by the capitulation of Canada last year, so as not to be surprised at their appearance. Then delivered them a little clothing, paint, some silver trinkets, and cash to buy bread for their journey. -A Belt.
"Their answer. Brother: It gives us great pleasure to see you of whom we have often heard; and we now heartily shake you by the hand as our friend. We return you many thanks for this mark of your friendship; and be assured, if the wind will allow us, we will be in a few days home, when we will deliver your message faithfully to our chief men, who will doubtless send runners to call the other nations to meet you-then parted. About two hours afterward they returned to let me know that they could not proceed, as their canoe was broken by the soldiers at Little Niagara, on which I got Major Walters to write the sergeant there about it, and get them a little pitch to mend it. So set them off. This day Soajoana, chief of the Senecas, arrived here. I sent an Onondaga to desire he would come to me, as I wanted to speak with him. In the afternoon took a walk to my old encampment in 1759.
"Sunday August 2d.-Fine, warm weather. No account yet of my boats. Quite out of patience waiting for them. In the afternoon took a walk to Petite Marie, or landing-place, but could not see or hear anything of my boats. Two of the light infantry deserted. Soajoana not come to me yet.
"Monday 3d.-Still fine weather; wind at W. A Chenusio young fellow arrived here about 3 o'clock, sent by the sachems to acquaint me, that they were, to the number of thirty, on their way hither, agreeably to the call I gave them, when at Oswego, on hearing that some of their nation had been to Detroit with a war- belt. The messenger told me they would be here to-morrow or next day at farthest, having parted from them yesterday Major Gladwin came here from the Falls, and told me he expected to have his boats, &c., over in four or five days; that the pinnance he ordered to be made would be finished in about ten days. Captain Fonda arrived here from Toronto, where he said the trade was over for this season; and that they had a great deal of goods yet on which he offered to sell at prime cost, but could not dispose of them. He says the Indians all behaved extremely well who came there to trade; that they sell gunpowder at a bear skin for a pound.
"Tuesday 4th.-Fine weather; very-warm. Wind at S. W. No account of my boats yet. This morning, sent two Senecas in pursuit of two deserters of Gage's. A Seneca Indian, who came over to my camp during the siege of this place, with about thirty of his people, paid me a visit. On my examining him, and asking how it came that the Senecas sent such a message to the western Indians at and about Detroit, he told me that it came from the Indians about Ohio, who had one of their men killed at or near Fort Pitt last spring; that others were abused much by the English, and lately, five Delawares were killed near Shamokin, and a Seneca killed by the garrison at Venango; that he believed that to be the reason of their sending such a message to Detroit, imagining the English intended their destruction from their unfriendly and rough behavior to the Indians who came to see them. The name of Shabear's son, who went with the war belt to Detroit is Tahaijdoris; the other is Kaiaghshota, both Senecas. Mr. De Couagne, interpreter, came to let me know that Sonajoana, chief of the Seneca nation, was here, and intended to wait on me this morning. About 12, he, another Seneca, and their families came to my quarters, and after telling me they were very glad to see me, said they would wait the arrival of the several sachems of their nation, who were coming here on my call from Oswego, and expected they would arrive to-morrow. Gave them pipes, tobacco, a little provision, and a couple glasses of wine to each, and parted. I desired Major Walters to forbid any rum by traders, sutlers or others, to the Indians, during the stay of the Seneca chiefs, as it would not only confound them, but greatly retard the intended meeting. He accordingly gave out his orders for that purpose. This afternoon, I made out regulations for Indian trade, which is to be put up at each post where trade is carried on with Indians.
"Wednesday 5th.-Very heavy rain in the morning until nine o'clock. Wind at S. West. No account yet of my boats. Captain Fonda came to acquaint me he was going to Toronto, as he could not dispose of his cargo here, although he offered all his rum at 8s. 6d. per gallon. In the afternoon went a gunning with Captain Slossen. Four men whipped, for robbing a Seneca Indian of a keg of rum, in their presence.
"Thursday 6th. Fine weather: wind at N. East; very warm. No account of my boats yet. I made out a regulation for the Oswego trade this day, which I am to send by first opportunity to Major Duncan in order to set it up in the fort. In the afternoon took a ride to Petite Marie-with Lieutenant Johnson, Captain Etherington and Doctor Stevenson. In the evening Collins Andrews arrived here from Detroit in fifteen days; all well there, but trade very dull. Goods sold at 20 and 30 per cent profit to each other. Mr. Gamblin, who was taken prisoner here two years ago, is come in company with him to the falls, and will be here to-morrow or next day.
"Friday 7th.-Fine weather; but rather too hot wind at west. No account of my boats.
"Saturday 8th.- Fine weather; wind at N. E., until 11 o'clock, then turned to S. W.; weather warm. At 12 o'clock the Senecas came to me, and told me that three young men, who were sent by the sachems express, arrived, and were desired to acquaint me that the sachems, &c., who were coming on my call from Oswego, were returned on account of one of their chief men, named Karaghianaghqui, falling sick, which prevented their proceeding. Therefore, would be glad if I would deliver what I had to say, to the Senecas, who were at Niagara, being about twenty-two in number, with a chief called Sonajoana, who would acquaint the rest with it. I told them that I was surprised at their not obeying the summons sent them, as it greatly concerned their interest and welfare, having something of moment to say to them; however, as there were some of their chiefs here, I would, in the afternoon, speak to them. After dinner Mr. Gambling arrived, and told me that an Indian from the Ottawas desired him to take care of himself, and get out of the way, as this place and Detroit would be destroyed in a few days. On asking Mons. Gambling when he returned, he answered, in three or four days, but that he would wait any time to accompany me to Detroit, where his horse was at my service. At 4 o'clock, sent for the Senecas to my quarters in the fort. When met, delivered them what I had to say myself, Mr. De Couagne not being able to do it. It will appear in the records of Indian affairs. They told me they would return me an answer on tomorrow Then broke up. Captain Slasser took me out to walk, when he let me know his desire of settling on a farm and quitting the army, and sending for his wife and family. He left it for me to choose a proper place for him, which I shall look out for on my return.
"Sunday 9th.-Very fine, warm weather; wind at N. N. E, No account of my boats yet. This morning I wrote a letter to Captain Clause by Mons. Desonie, who is going to Mt. Real with about three hundred packs, another letter to Major Duncan at Oswego, with the regulation for trade. Mr. Gambling came to see me and talked a good deal about the present situation of affairs at Detroit, and the disposition of the Indians in that quarter; all which he represented in a very favorable light, and is of opinion that few or none of the Indians that way like the Six Nations. Mons. Desonie gave me also a very good account of the Indians inhabiting those parts; and is of opinion that no rum should be sold, or allowed to be sent beyond Niagara. It never was allowed by the French government. Major Gladwin arrived here from the landing place above the Falls, and said he would be ready to start in about three days. Asked me whether I had any commands. I told him none; that he might proceed as soon as he could to Detroit, and that I expected to overtake him before he got there. In the afternoon about twenty-five Senecas assembled at my quarters, and in answer to what I had delivered them yesterday, declared they did not know anything, of the affair; and that they were of opinion, as the two messengers who went to Detroit with the belt of wampum live at or near Fort Pitt, that it must be from that quarter; that as to their people stealing horses, they did not deny but some foolish young men might have done so, but promised that they would for the future take better care, and prevent any cause of complaint of the kind, as they were desirous of living in friendship with us. Here gave a bunch of wampum. The speaker then, in behalf of the warriors, sachems, and principal women, begged I would be so kind as to consider their poverty, and allow a little ammunition to the young men to kill some game for their support, and some clothing to cover the nakedness of their women, which, if granted, they would always be grateful for. - A bunch of wampum.
"My answer. - Brethren of the Seneca Nation: I have with attention and surprise heard you now declare your innocence and ignorance of the late message sent to Detroit by two of your people, who, although they live detached from you, would not, I am certain, presume to take upon them an affair of that kind, without your consent or approbation, as I well know that in matters of less moment you all consult each other. As this is so villainous an affair and carried so far, I must tell you plainly that I look upon what you now tell me only as an evasion, and kind of excuse to blind us. And I tell yon, that all the excuses you can make, and all the rhetoric your nation is master of, will not satisfy the general, nor convince me of your innocence, unless a deputation of your chiefs appear at the general meeting which I am now calling at Detroit, and there in the presence of all the nations declare your innocence and disapprobation of what was done by the two messengers last month at Detroit. This I expect you will do to show your brethren your innocence, and all the Indians your detestation of so vile and unnatural a plot."--I here returned them their own wampum, to show them I paid no regard to what they said, which greatly staggered them all. After some time spent in talking together, their speaker said : "Brother: You are very hard upon us, after our honest declarations of innocence. However, as it does not give you satisfaction, we will send off to-morrow morning your belt to our nation, with what you have said to them, and doubt not but some of our chief men will be ready to go to the proposed meeting at Detroit, and then satisfy you and the world of their innocence.
"Then I desired they would lose no time, so that they might not retard the meeting, and promised them I would cover their nakedness the next day. And as to ammunition, I told them it was owing to their ill behavior last year, in leaving us after the surrender of Isle Royal, that they were not taken more notice of. Besides, they could not expect we would now put arms or ammunition into the hands of people who are mad enough to think of quarreling with us. However, on their solemnly declaring themselves innocent of the charge, and promising to behave as friends, I told them they should have a little ammunition for the present, to kill some game on their journey home. Thus ended.
"At 9 o'clock at night my boats arrived from Oswego, having eleven days passage; brought me several letters and newspapers; also a letter for Captain Campbell at Detroit.
"Monday 10th.-Fine weather ; very warm, ordered my boats over the river opposite to the fort, and after drawing provisions, to embark and go up to the landing place or La Platon. A report made me of several things destroyed and ruined by getting wet in the boats.
"Gave Mr. De Couagne a list of such goods as I propose giving to the Seneca Indians, that he may purchase them of the traders here. At 12 o'clock, delivered the goods to them, and promised a keg of rum on their journey, when ready to set off. About 4 o'clock, the boats set off and went up to the landing place; Nickus, of Canajoliarie, an Indian, arrived here, and acquainted me that several of his castle died of a malignant fever, since my passing that castle, and that all Brant's (1) family were ill of the same disorder, except the old woman. He also told me that he had heard, by the way, from several Indians, that I was to be destroyed or murdered on my way to Detroit, and that the Indians were certainly determined to rise and fall on the English, as several thousand of the Ottawas and other nations had agreed to join the Five Nations in this scheme or plot.
"Tuesday llth.-Fine weather; very hot. Every day I am making ready to set off for the landing place, in order to hurry every thing over. Sent my son there with directions what to have done; also orders to Captain Walters to get the boats over as soon, as possible.
The Mohawks and Oneidas spoke in behalf of their nations to the Chenusios with wampum; and after condemning the part they understood they were acting, strongly exhorted them to a better behavior, and also insisted on their delivering up what horses they had taken from hence-otherwise it must be productive of a quarel with the English, which they will be blamed for by all nations. They also advised, that gome of their sachems might attend the intended meeting at Detroit, and there declare their sentiments in the presence of their brethren, the English, and all the nations of Indians assembled at said congress. Three strings of wampum. The Senecas thanked them for their advice, and assured them, they would faithfully report it to their chiefs, on their arrival in their country; and were of opinion it would have great weight with them.
"Old Belt, the Seneca chief, two other chiefs, and several others of his nation just now arrived, who came purposely to see me, hearing I was at this place. On asking him how all in his country did, he answered, "all well and very peaceable." I asked him if he had not heard of the measures proposed by gome of the Senecas lately at Detroit. He declared he had heard nothing of any moment since his arrival in his country. After ordering him some provisions, which he seemed in great need of, he went away, and promised to come and smoke a pipe with me in the afternoon. He
1 Always spelled thus by Sir William Johnson.
accordingly came and spoke (as will appear in the records of that day), when I told him what passed at Detroit, which surprised him. I asked his opinion of it. He said that when the sachems from the Seneca country, who were gone to Onondaga on business, were come back, he could tell what was intended, and would let me know it. He added, that as he was invested with the direction of the affairs of the nation where he lived, I did hot doubt but he would be able to settle all matters on the best footing among them.
"Wednesday 12th.- Fine weather. I set off for the landing place with my baggage, in company with Captain Etherington, Doctor Stevenson and Lieutenant Johnson. When I arrived there, I found Mr. Frazier, an officer of Gladwin's party, getting over the last of their things. In the evening, I sent over four of my battoes, there being no more carriages. The royal American party is also here, waiting to get over their provisions, &c. I expect they will be ready to accompany me. In the evening, I took a walk to look if there could be a better landing place found, but could see none, without it was made with a great deal of labor.
"Thursday 13th.-Still very fine weather, Got the wet goods dried as well as I could, and the damaged casks, cases, &c., repaired. Sent Lieutenant Johnson with a boat to Niagara, in order to invite Major Walters, Mons. Dember, &c., to dine with me, and to get some provisions. About one, they arrived, and dined, at 2 o'clock. Then got very merry and returned. This day some Indians arrived here from Missillimackinac. I could, not speak with them; they have come to trade.
"Friday 14th.-A good deal of rain ; very sultry. Got over the rest of my boats, and some of the Royal Americans, provisions, &c. Nickus, the Mohawk, with his party encamped here last night. He told me he expected White Hame, his uncle, would be up with us in a day or two. Mr. Hutchinson, a trader, brought me letters from below, dated the 23d ult.; not any news.
"Saturday 10th-Still rainy weather. Sent over nine wagons loaded with such articles as may receive least damage, and nine men with them. I had a long discourse with the Old Belt, and gave him an order on De Couagne for one pair of strouds, twenty pounds of penniston, six shirts, twelve pounds powder and ball, and one keg of rum-so finished with him. I wrote Captain Robertson to order the boats to be mended. Wrote for Wabbicomicot to come up, also Mr. Gambling if ready.-I wrote to Major Walters for one Ct. of powder, provisions for forty, for 20 days-being for my family, and the Indians who accompany me. Received a letter from Captain Robinson letting me know that he had ordered another carpenter to work at my boats. Five Missilliinackinac Indians came to me and begged to have their rum and goods carried over the carrying place. Agreed to it.
"Sunday 16th, 1761.-Rained early in the morning and all night, but cleared up about 6 o'clock. Had the waggons loaded and sent off. Major Walters, Captain Etherington, and Lieutenant Hay dined with me, and all got very merry.
"Monday 17th.-A little rain in the morning, but cleared up. Loaded all the waggons and set off myself and company for the other end of the carrying place, or Little Niagara, where Shahear Jean Cosur lived. In the afternoon two Trench canoes arrived from Detroit and Missillimackinac. They said all was quiet in those parts; that there were between twenty and thirty families living there; a little fort abandoned by the garrison; the Post La Bay eighty leagues distant from that. Went to the Island to see the Vessel, and my battoe, which was repairing. Mr. Dies said in about a fortnight she might sail. The French traders met Major Gladwin this morning, entering the lake.
"Tuesday 18th.-Showery. I went to see the falls with Lieutenant Johnson, Johnny and Ensign Holmes. Returned at 9 o'clock, when I met Captain Slosser and Mr. Dembler at my tent. Mr. Dembler gave me a plan of Niagara and its environs. Wind contrary. I gave out orders for fitting up the boata so as to load them to-morrow and set off. Orders that all the boats keep in sight, and encamp together every night. At 11 o'clock, the last of the provisions came up with the waggons. Very heavy rain all the afternoon, so that there was no doing anything. My battoe not yet finished. Captain Slosser, Dembler, Dies, Robertson, &c., dined with me, and got pretty happy before they left me.
"Wednesday 19th.-A very wet, raw, disagreeable morning. No stirring the goods until we have fair weather. Mr. Breme was yesterday in the lake some miles, left by Mr. Robertson, who says he judges the south side of the lake beet for me to go. . I gave a French blanket to each of the Ghippawas, to a Seneca, to an Oneida, to two Mohawks, and a pound of paint. Mr. Johnson, my son, Captain Slosser and his son, are going to the island to see the vessel, and to bring my boat over mended. I wrote to the general this day, and gave the letter to Captain Slossor. Captain Walters very bad with the gout; obliged to leave him behind. As it holds up raining, I ordered the boats to be cleaned and loaded immediately. Mr. Dies spoke to me yesterday about the two islands, which he was of opinion would be a valuable thing in time. I promised him, if he could lay down, or think of a good plan or scheme, I would assist in getting them from the Indians. He said he would.
"At four o'clock embarked with the Royal American party, and the Yorkers, under the command of Lieutenant Ogden; the Royal Americans, commanded by Ensigns Slosser and Holmes, with four battoes, and the former with eight battoes and one birch canoe, with the Mohawks, &c., making in all thirteen boats. Mr. Gambling sent me word he would be here to-morrow morning in order to accompany me. Touched at the island as we passed along; then struck over to the south side of the river, and encamped on the large island by a creek about two miles and a half from the ship yard. The island is full of fine large oak, and very level; as far as I could see. By the creek mouth, a fine situation for a house and trade, there being a good harbor in the creek for boats.
"Thursday 20th.-Fine morning;. Decamped at 5 o'clock from Point Pleasant. The creek does not divide the island; ends in a swamp or meadow. The end of the large island is within five miles of the entrance of the lake, which is very ragged and rocky, also narrow. We arrived there at 1 o'clock, dined, and waited till two for the rest of the boats; then set off, and encamped in a bay, about even miles from the entrance. The lake about twenty miles broad at our encampment.
"Friday 21st.-Morning gloomy; embarked at 5 o'clock. Cleared up about 8 o'clock, with a northerly breeze. Halted and dined at a point about twenty-six miles in the lake, when the boats all came up, embarked again, and came to the Grand river, where we encamped. This is the first river we came to since our entrance into the lake It is pretty large and navigable for canoes a great way. The Ottawas have two carrying places from this river to Lake Ontario, but are pretty long, one in particular. The lake here is so wide we could not see across. The goods for the present are very wet by the badness of the battoes, and want of oil cloths enough to cover them. There is a small island a little above the entrance of this river, which makes it very remarkable.
"Saturday 22d.-A very rainy morning; wind at N. E. One if the Chippawas in [our] company, lives up this river, about half day's journey, whom I Intended to visit. I went about twelve miles up said river; very deep and still; about 150 yards wide, mostly N. W. and N. N. W. Where we turned back, the creek in about west. fine meadows on each side. Returned about 3 'clock. Rained all the time. Mr. Gambling came up with us here.
"Memoranda.-To settle all my affairs when I get home, with regard to land, settling tenants, &c.
"To go to New York this winter to settle about my patent opposite Canajoharie.
"To make out a plan for the management of Indian affairs, what officers, interpreters, &c., will be necessary, and what the expense he whole will amount to, then send it to the board of trade, and ministry.
"To have my books and all my accounts properly settled; and al1 my tenants accounts adjusted regularly and put into one book.
"To sow the several seeds I pick up in my way to Detroit.
"To give diversions at Detroit to the Indians, and also to the French, of the best sort, balls, &c.
"To enquire of the governor at Detroit, how much land, in the French time, each man held, what rent they paid, to what use put, and to whom paid,
"Little summer houses to build in my gardens when I get home.
"To get my ten black beavers dressed and made up into a
blanket for a bed.
"To send Doctor Stevenson some some present, and some few new books by Captain Etherington. -
"I agreed with Mr. Harsen, of Albany, to work as gunsmith for the Indians who come to Niagara, at £100 currency per annum. Present Captain Slosser.
"Sunday 23c.-Embarked at 5 o'clock, with a strong N. Easterly wind. Sailed at the rate of six miles an hour. Beached the river Fiatro ; a good harbor for any number of boats. Dined here, and at 2 o'clock embarked; wind still strong, but changed to the N. N. E. Have picked some seed like Piony, and at Grand river, seed of a weed good for a flux,(1) also here some black sand. Sailed, the rate of five miles an hour, until 5 o'clock. By the way, met two French canoes, which left Detroit four days ago, and met Major
1 I. E., dysentery, the disease to which he was continually subject, and which finally caused his death.
Gladwin three days ago at the Grand Point or carrying place. We encamped at a little river near a long island, which is next to Point Bass and is called Buedel.
"Monday 24th.-Embarked at 5 o'clock with a strong wind at N. E. Sailed at a great rate. Sea very high, especially to Point Bass, off which came a canoe of Mississengeys, nine in number, all naked. They only came to get something; then returned. At Point Bass, it makes a great bay, through which we sailed about ten miles to the Grand Point, where we were obliged to row and sail, through bulrushes and a great meadow, to the bank which divider the lake; makes the Great Point the passage or carrying place, which is now cut open a little by Major Gladwin; is not above forty yards across. I had my boat first hauled over, and all the rest in half an hour. Then set off with a good breeze, and sailed along a kind of beach about sixteen miles; then along a high sand bank, about twenty miles more, where there is no harbor nor even landing for boats in case of bad weather, until we came to the river Alavar, which is a good harbor for boats. Here we encamped about 7 o'clock; about 8 o'clock my boats came up.
"Tuesday 25th.-A fine morning; wind at N. E. Several bales of blankets, &c., being wet, I gave orders for halting here this day in order to dry them and prevent their spoiling. About 8 o'clock, a boat appeared in sight, coming after us, which taking for Mr. Bream, I sent Lieutenant Johnson and Ensign Slosser in a boat to meet them, and know who they are, and where come from. At nine, Mr. Bream came to our camp. He had been round the Grand Point, which he says is twenty-two miles long from the carrying place; very low toward the end, which is swampy, and about two miles broad; lies mostly S. E., and is about a third of the lake in length. He set off again immediately, and is resolved to visit the islands toward the end of the lake. All that land along the lake very barren as far as I could see; timbered chiefly by white oaks. At 10 o'clock, Tom. Lottridge arrived here from Niagara, which he left the 21st inst., and brought me a large packet from General Amherst, with the news of the surrender of Belle Isle to his Britannic Majesty, the 7th of June last; also an account of our defeating the Cherokees the tenth of last July, and burning fifteen of their towns; also an account of the reduction of Pondicherry in the East Indies. On which I gave orders for the Royal Americans and Yorkers, at three o'clock, to be in arms, and fire three volleys, and give three cheers; after which, each man is to have a dram to drink his majesty's health. I also acquainted the Indians with the news, who were greatly pleased at it. All the officers dined and spent the afternoon with me, and Mr. Gambling, the Frenchman, who got very drunk this night, and told me several things very openly.
"Wednesday 26th.-Fine morning; little or no wind. Embarked at 5 o'clock. Everything in pretty good order, after yesterday's drying. The wind comes from the S. W., and rises pretty high, which obliges us to put into a river, called by the Indians Kanagio; by the French, river Sholdiere. It has been a settlement of Indians formerly, and a very pretty place. My boats have great difficulty to get up the river against the wind, and there is no sailing them out in the lake, or anywhere but in the river; the bank being so high for many miles that a man can but in a few places creep up with difficulty. Here I am obliged to lie by for the contrary wind, and shall employ the party the rest of the day drying the present. My boats did not arrive until night. They received no damage.
"Thursday 27th.-Cold morning; wind not favorable. Ordered to embark and try to make all the headway we can. The wind soon turned quite contrary and blew very hard. Met some French boats from Detroit, which they left ten days before, and are going to Montreal with skins and furs. They met Major Gladwin yesterday evening about fifteen leagues from here, and Mr. Breme this morning. They told me Mr. Croghan had arrived at Detroit two days before they left it, with a few Shawanese, Delawares, &c. The cattle not yet come from Pittsborough. The wind still strong and quite ahead, with a great surf. Notwithstanding, I pushed on for a harbor-the bank being very steep and no rowing a boat without coming to a harbor; which at 6 o'clock we found at the end of a long point, called the Green----,l where we were obliged to draw up our boats on a sandy beach. Here met with two birch canoes; one an Ottawa, the other a Chenundaddy, going a trading. I had them to smoke a pipe at my tent, when they told me that Mr. Croghan was arrived. They told me that nothing ever gave the nations living around their country greater pleasure than my going among them; that they were certain it would have a very good effect; and that all the surrounding nations were sent to attend the meeting on the arrival of the Chenundaddy messenger, who brought my belt of summons. They then begged that I would give them a few lines
to have their goods and provisions carried over at Niagara Falls, which I complied with. They told me I would not see many young men of their nation, as they went to war, on my desire, last spring, against the Cherokees.
"Friday 28th--A fine morning; wind northerly and pretty cold. Embarked at 5 o'clock, and proceeded to a beach near to Point a Pain; there dined, and saw where the light infantry had been mending their boats the day before. Then set off and rowed along the point, which is a fine sandy beach about ten miles, and very narrow, making a large bay to the westward. There is a carrying place at the north end of said beach, but hardly passable without more trouble than profit. Encamped at the end of the beach, near to the Highlands, which is eight leagues long. None of my boats, except the Royal Americans, yet come up. One of the present boats and Captain Montour's being left behind yesterday, I ordered Lieutenant Ogden of the Yorkers to wait for their coming up, and then to proceed with the whole. Wind moderate, and the wind lulled. A French canoe, going to Detroit, encamped near to us.
"Saturday 29th.-Fair weather; the wind contrary, being a shore wind, and we having the high banks or bluff shore to go along, which is eight leagues. Not one of the Yorker's boats yet in sight, so shall be delayed by them. My provision and everything is on board those. At 9 o'clock the wind blew very hard at S. W., obliged to have our boats drawn up three times on shore from the surf. Rained a good deal until 12 o'clock, when the wind lulled a little. No account or sight of my store-boats yet. About 4 o'clock, the wind and turf much greater. My boats within four miles encamped, could not reach us; the swell being so great two of them almost filled with water, and spoiled some things. We are obliged to remain here this night. About eight at night, quite a storm with great lightning. Boats obliged to be pulled up as far as we could; and sentries to watch them.
"Sunday 30th.-Still very stormy weather; wind at W. N. W; no possibility of stirring, nor of getting the store-boats up. I was obliged to send two men to look for the boats, and to bring me some provisions And ammunition, what I had, being expended. I gave my own provisions to the Indians, who accompany me, theirs being in the boats behind. A great plenty of pigeons here; killed several.
"Monday 31st.-Fine weather; wind contrary. Embarked at 6 o'clock with the Royal Americans and my own boat, the others not being come up. Turned the point which is about twelve miles from where we set off. A bank all along, very bad and steep. Dined and set off about 2 o'clock, and encamped on a beach above the highland, and within a couple of miles of the carrying place of Point Place. Lotteridge and Gambling gone to the portage. My boats not come up. Here is a large body of drowned land or swamp, with a river or creek through the middle (called River Du Coeur) but stopped up by the land at the lake side. A fine place for ducks, geese, &c. The light infantry encamped here, I believe, yesterday, by the fresh tracks. Blew hard in the night.
"Tuesday September 1st.-Fine morning; little or no wind. Embarked, and set off for the portage, where we arrived at 10 o'clock. Then went to the end of Point Place, which is but a very narrow ridge or bank of sand, about thirty yards wide for several miles. Then the said ridge continues for three or four miles into the lake almost due south, but just covered with water which breaks over it. About one hundred yards from the extremity of the sand point, is the best passage for boats,-water nearly two feet deep. There I dined, and seeing my boats in sight, encamped early for their coming up, having neither liquor, linen or anything but what is on board the store boat. Have come about twelve miles from the Point Place to the high land. At 8 o'clock, the boats all arrived, except the one Montour is in. Rained and blew hard the most part of the night.
"Wednesday 2d.-Embarked at 6 o'clock, with N. N. E. wind. Sailed at a great rate, as the wind blew very fresh. Mostly high land to the entrance of the River Detroit, except here and there small beaches. At the entrance of the river appear islands to the westward, and a bunch of trees which is called Point Moire, being always wet. Encamped at 5 o'clock, opposite the end of Isle Bois Blanc, or White Wood Island. This island is about two miles in length, and half a mile in breadth; pretty ground and bank. On the east shore of the river, opposite said island, are about five hundred acres of clear land, which was planted by the Hurons twelve years ago; had two priests here, but left this for the place where they now live. It would make a very pleasant place for a, settlement; land good, and a fine prospect of the lake, river, and island. There might be now mowed a vast quantity of hay. Here a fine hunting place all about it.
"Thursday 2d.-At 4 o'clock I arose, and wrote Mr. Croghan a few lines by Mr. Gambling's canoe, to meet me about six miles this side of the fort with horses. I take Mr. Gambling in my boat. Fine morning, but cold, and the wind right ahead. Embarked at 7 o'clock, and on our way passed several fine islands and drowned meadows. About twelve, came to the house of Mr. Jarves of the militia^ which is the best house I have seen in the neighborhood Eat some melon there, and set off for Detroit, which is but a league from said house. Opposite to the Huron Town, and Pottawattamie village, saw Mr. Croghan and St. Martin, the interpreter, with horses expecting us. On coming farther, the Indian towns drew out and began to fire with cannon and small arms, which I returned by three volleys from the Royal American detachment; then went on shore and rode to town through a number of settlements. All along the road was met by Indians, and near the town, by the inhabitants, traders, &c. When I came to the verge of the fort, the cannon thereof were fired, and the officers of the garrison with those of Gage's Light Infantry received me, and brought me to see my quarters, which is the house of the late commandant Mr. Belestre, (1) the best in the place. After having given directions for my baggage to be brought there; went to Campbell's quarters, where his officers and several of the French gentlemen were introduced to me. Hearing Major Gladwin was very ill, went with Captain Campbell to see him, and found him very ill. Then returned to my quarters, and supped that evening with Captain Campbell.
"Friday 4th.-Fine weather. I was all the forenoon taken up with receiving visits and compliments from the different nations of Indians, that came here to meet me, to whom I gave pipes, tobacco, and some drink. Dined with Captain Campbell, whom I desired to order a feu de joie on the great success of his Majesty's arms in the reduction of Belle Isle, and destroying so many villages of the Cherokees, which was done about 7 o'clock in the evening, having first acquainted all the Indians with the news, and the reason of firing; which they seemed greatly pleased at. The Ottawas and several other nations sent me word they would wait on me next morning to pay their respects. This afternoon, Captain Campbell went with me to Major Gladwin's quarters, and there we settled about, the garrisoning the several posts in the best manner we possibly could, considering the bad situation of affairs, viz: the lateness of the season, the badness of the boats, and above all the scarcity of
1 Picote de Belletre.
visions and ammunition, which Captain Campbell and Major Gladwin reported to me to be the case, the latter having lost all of his ammunition and a great part of his provisions in coming here, These circumstances, well weighed and considered, we unanimously agreed to send back--men of Gage's [Light Infantry] to Niagara, for provisions, as the vessels bringing provisions here are very precarious. The remainder to proceed with a garrison of an officer and thirty men for the fort of Missillimackinac and ten months provisions; also an officer and fifteen men for St. Joseph; an officer fifteen men for Warraghtenhook, with as much provision as possibly be spared; and au officer and fifteen men to relieve the dangers at the Miami's post immediately; Captain Campbell and Bellfore to settle and order the proper number of boats necessary for said service, and make an exact calculation of the quantity of provisions for said garrisons to-morrow morning, so that they may set off as soon as possible,- I am greatly distressed for the want of provisions for the Indians, having received none from Fort Pitt as I expected; wherefore am obliged, at a very great expense, to purchase cattle and what I can get here.
"Saturday 5th.-A very wet morning; cleared up about 10 o'clock This day I wrote to Ferrall Wade, which is to go by Lieutenant Ogden. Had [to dine with me] Captains Campbell, Bellfore McCloud, eight or ten other officers, and Colonel Du Quesne and Major La Mott, his brother, who were my prisoners at Niagara. While the company were drinking, two of the head men of the Hurons came in to acquaint me that the women of their nation were all come to see and bid me welcome here to their country. On which they- were introduced by Mr. Croghan, to the number of fifty, old and young. After saluting them, I ordered them a glass of wine and some biscuit, and drank their healths. They then told me, they had brought me some corn, the produce of their land, which they begged I would accept of. In return I ordered them a beef for their nation, which pleased them much. At parting they shook hands again, and bid farewell;- so ended their visit. In the morning all the principle inhabitants of Detroit, with their priest, came to pay their respects and desire protection. I returned the compliment, and gave them assurances of his Majesty's protection, while they continued to behave as good subjects. Then gave them rusk and shrub in plenty, which they made very good use of, and went away extremely well pleased-their priest at their head.
"Sunday 6th.-A very fine morning. This day I am to dine with Captain Campbell, who is also to give the ladies a ball, that I may see them. They assembled at 8 o'clock at night, to the number of about twenty. I opened the ball with Mademoiselle Curie-a fine girl. We danced until five o'clock next morning. This day the Ottawas, by Mr. La Bute, interpreter, made me a speech, chiefly on the begging order, and to support the French interpreters. Answered them with a belt of wampum.
"Monday 7th.-A fine morning. Montour not yet come, nor the Mohawks. I shall send the interpreters this day to desire that all the nations may be ready to attend the meeting to-morrow, or next day at farthest. The Light Infantry and Royal Americans are making ready to set off tomorrow, or next day at farthest. I had all the Delaware, Shawanese, Six Nations, and Huron chiefs from the south side of the lakes this afternoon, when I told them I should speak to all on Wednesday, when I desired that they and all the other nations would be ready to attend. Gave them pipes, tobacco, and rum for their whole number, and parted very friendly.
"Tuesday 8th, 1761.-Fine morning. This day am about finishing what I have to do of the speech, which I am to make tomorrow to all the nations assembled here. Also making out instructions and orders for the officers going to command at Missillimackinac, St. Joseph, Miamis, &c. On examining the goods intended for the present, many are found to be rotten and ruined by badness of the boats, for want of a sufficient number of oil cloths, &c.; so that I shall be obliged to replace them, and add more goods to the present, the number of Indians being very great. In the afternoon, I had the two interpreters at my quarters, when I got Mr. Williams, of the light infantry, to tell them in French what I intended to say, which he did very distinctly.
"Wednesday 9th.-Fine morning, but windy. I ordered all the seats to be made out of doors for the meeting, there being no house here half large enough to meet in. Received an account this morning of the loss of one of my store boats, which Montour was in.
"I ordered two cannon to be fired at 10 o'clock, as a signal for them all to assemble. This day, the Light Infantry and Royal Americans, which are to garrison the forts at Missillimackinac, La Bay and St. Joseph, set off with ten months provision. I gave Mr. Lastly for Missillimackinac, about fifty pounds of tobacco out of my present. Nickus, of Canajoharie, arrived this, morning, and left Montour and Preston, with my small boat, yesterday, at the entrance of this river. What they bad of my stores in their boat is all lost and ruined, having been, he says, cast away. About 10 o'clock, the Indians were all met, when I went there with Captain Campbell and all his officers, the officers of the Light Infantry, all the merchants and principal people of the town. Mr. Croghan, Lieut. Johnson, Mr. Breme, Mr. Mya from Pittsborough, Mr. Bostwick from: Missillimackinac, Mr. Bute and St. Martin, Interpreters, the former to the Ottawas, the latter to the Hurons, Printup only as spectator. After the speech was delivered, I arose, and with the gentlemen went to dinner at my quarters, where, about 5 o'clock, the Hurons, Ottawas, &c., came to the amount of thirty chiefs, to let me know that they understood the Indians from the south side of Lake Erie were determined, to return, having heard what I had to say; and that, therefore, they -would now, while said Indians were here, let me know how that war-belt was sent here. I thanked them for their honesty and readiness, but told them it was better to have it mentioned in public, when I received an answer from all the nations. To this they agreed, and said that as some chiefs of each nation might take to drinking, they would be glad to answer on the morrow; and desired two guns might be fired, as on this day, whereby they might all assemble and finish;-to which I readily agreed, and promised them it should be done accordingly. Gave them pipes, tobacco and some liquor,-then parted.
"Thursday 10th.-Fine -weather. My quarters full of Indians of different nations about little affairs of their own, which I settled. After that, a very honest Seneca Indian came and told me what he had heard among his relations living here, which he delivered very ingenuously, and seemed to me to be very just. No account yet of Montour or the boat's crew. This day I wrote by Captain McCloud to Major Walters for ammunition, provisions, and an officer, sergeant and ten men for the garrrsoning one of the posts, viz: Miamis or Miamis Wawiaghtanook. Yesterday Captain Balfour with one hundred and twenty of Gage's, [Light Infantry] set off with the Royal Americans for Missillimackinac, &c. I wrote the general this day by Captain McCloud. In the afternoon, the Indians all assembled, and gave their answer to my speech made the day before, which was very satisfactory. After all was over, the White Mingo came to my quarters where all the gentlemen were with me, and desired I would return to the meeting, as he and the Six Nations from Ohio had something to say in answer to what the Hurons had charged them with. We all returned to the council, where we found every nation by themselves. Then Kaiaghshota, a Seneca chief, and one who accompanied the two messengers who came here with the war axe to the Hurons, stood up, and with great oratory and resolution, endeavored to clear himself of the imputations laid to his charge, when one of the Hurons named Adariaghta, the chief warrior of the nation, confronted him and the White Mingo, and discovered everything which had passed. Upon which, the White Mingo told them that they had come several times to him at Ohio, and pressed him and others living there to fall upon the English, which he as often refused. After a great deal of altercation I got up, and desired that they would not go to too great lengths, being now joined in stricter friendship and alliance than ever. Left them liquor and broke up the meeting, telling them I intended next day delivering them some goods, &c., which I had brought up for their use, and desired they would be punctual as soon as the cannon was fired. They thanked me, and promised they would be ready to attend-parted. Supped with Cole and went to bed early.
"Friday 11th.-Fine morning At 6 o'clock, Mr. Croghan se about cutting up the present, and making proper divisions thereof for the several nations. This morning, I gave Baby's daughter a present, her father being a principal sachem of the Hurons. Went to the meeting about 12 o'clock, where the Indians were all assembled to the number of five hundred and odd, when the Delawares and Shawanese made a speech. After that, I made a reply to what all the nations had answered yesterday, as [will appear] by records. Then gave them the present, divided in nine parts. After that went to dinner; and after dinner, about forty of the Chippawas, who had just arrived, came to see me, and made a friendly speech with a string of wampum, assuring me of their firm resolution of abiding by us, and complying with everything proposed by me, and agreed to by the rest. Gave them pipes, tobacco, and rum; then they departed. This day I ordered to be laid aside a good many things for the Huron sachems, Delawares, Shawanese, &o., and am to speak to them separately my opinion and advice.
"Saturday 12th.-Very fine weather and warm. I had meetings with the several nations of Ottawas, Shaganoos, Chippewas, &c., who made many demands and requests for their several nations, and gave the strongest assurances of being happy in what I said, and of their adhering inviolably to the promises and engagements entered into here, as did the Delawares, Shawanese, &c., by belts and strings. I then sent for the White Mingo alias Kanaghragait, and the Seneca who accompanied Tahaiadoris here with the Seneca's message, named Kalaghshota, to whom I said a great deal concerning the late design of the Indians in their quarter; set forth the madness of it, and desired them, by a large string of wampum, to reform and repent, which they assured me they and all their people, would pay the strictest observance to; then condoled the Seneca who was killed by our troops stealing horses, with two black strouds, two shirts, and two pair of stockings; gave them their liquor, I promised, and parted. This morning four of the principal ladies of the town came to wait on me. I treated them with rusk and cordial. After sitting an hour, they went away. This day, I gave private presents to chiefs of sundry nations. At 9 o'clock at night a York officer arrived at my quarters, express from Niagara in sixteen days, with letters from General Amherst, and the belt, which the Senecas sent here, to desire the Hurons, &c., to join against the English.
"Sunday 13th.-Very fine weather. I had a meeting with the Chippawa nation at my quarters, who spoke with two large bunches of wampum, giving me the strongest assurances imaginable of their resolution to live in the strictest friendship, and that the speeches I had made to them, and the manner I had treated them and all the nations here, convinced them that I was their friend. They then said my presence had made the sun and sky bright and clear, the earth smooth and level, the roads all pleasant, and the lakes placid, and begged I would continue in the same friendly disposition toward them, and they would be a happy people. They then prayed to have a plentiful and fair trade, which I promised them; gave them a beef, liquor, &c., and parted very happy and well pleased. At 10 o'clock, Captain Campbell came to introduce some of the town ladies to me at my quarters, whom I received and treated with cakes, wine and cordial. Dined at Campbell's. In the evening, several Indians came to my quarters to bid me farewell.
"Monday 14th.-Fine weather. This day I am to have all the principal Inhabitants to dine with me; also Captain Campbell to have a meeting with the Hurons, and give their chiefs a private present; also to settle with the two French interpreters and pay them. I took a ride before dinner up toward the Lake St. Clair. The road runs along the river side, which is all settled thickly nine miles. A very pleasant place in summer, but at other seasons too low and marshy. The French gentlemen and the two priests who dined with us got very merry. Invited them all to a ball to-morrow night, which I am to give to the ladies.
"Tuesday 15th:-Fine weather. This day settled all accounts. Paid La Bute one hundred dollars for interpreting all the time for Captain Campbell; to St. Martin one hundred dollars for the same, to Doctor Anthony---.(1) I had the three Huron interpreters here at my lodging, and Aaron, also St. Martin, when I thanked them kindly for their conduct in the affair of the war-belt offered by the Six Nations' deputies this summer; strongly recommended to them a steady and uniform adherence to all the advice I had given them, and told them I looked upon them as the head of the Ottawa Confederacy. Having lighted up, ,a council-fire, I desired they would take care to keep it in good order, and not neglect their friends and allies, as the Six Nations have done, notwithstanding all my admonitions. Cautioned them against evil minded people or their wicked schemes; laid before them the danger of quarreling with the English, all which they thanked me for, and promised to pay the strictest attention to all I said. They then let me know that the Senecas had given another war-belt to the Shawanese, who told them that they would act as the Hurons had done. They then let me know that they would, on the morrow, return an answer to the speech of the Mohawks, and for that end, desired. a gun to be fired in order to assemble the Ottawas, Pottawattamies, &c., to the meeting. Then ordered up a very good private present, and dismissed them. In the evening, the ladies and gentlemen all assembled at my quarters, danced the whole night until 7 o'clock in the morning, when all parted very much pleased and happy. I promised to write Mademoiselle Curie as soon as possible my sentiments there never was so brilliant an assembly here before.
"Wednesday 16th.-Still fair weather, wind contrary for us. I ordered all the baggage to be packed up, and every thing ready to embark tomorrow About eleven, the Huron chiefs arrived, and acquainted me that they waited for the other nations, who, when assembled, would acquaint me, and come to my quarters. I am to dine this day with Captain Campbell. About one o'clock, the Hurons,
Ottawas, Pottawattamies, Chippawas, &c., met at my quarters, and made several speeches, large and full of gratitude, as by the minutes of this day's conference will appear. They also answered to the Mohawk belts, with which they had spoken to all the nations the tenth inst; and delivered them a calumet to be kept and smoked out of at our council at the Mohawk's;-the smoke of which will reach the most distant nations. This calumet was delivered by the Chippawas, and a bunch of green painted wampum to me, wherewith to dispel all clouds, and to clear all about us. I gave out private presents to the four chiefs of the Hurons, which were very considerable, and pleased them much. Nickus, the Mohawk, desired I would take home the pipe, belts, and strings, and deliver them to the sachems of the two Mohawk castles.
"Thursday 17th.-I counted out, and delivered to Mr. Croghan some silver works, viz ; one hundred and fifty ear-bobs, two hundred brooches or breast buckles, and ninety large crosses all of silver, to send to Ensign Gorrel of the Royal Americans, posted at La Bay on Lake Michigan, in order to purchase therewith some curious skins and furs for General Amherst and myself. Also gave Mr. Croghan some silver works as a present for himself to the amount of about forty pounds,-he having given me many presents of Indian kind. This day I am to give an answer to what the Indians said yesterday, and to set off, if I can, after visiting Major Gladwin, Irwin, &c.
"I set off about 4 o'clock in my boat, when the guns of the fort were fired. Arrived at the Huron castle soon, where the Indians were drawn up and saluted. Encamped here; visited the Priest Pierre Pottie; took a ride with Captain Jarvis in his chair; supped with St. Martin, the Jesuit, La Bute, &c., and went to the Huron's council room, where they had every thing in good order and three fires burning. I here delivered them an answer to what they had said the day before, as will appear by the minutes of this day. Then broke up.
"Friday 18th.-Fine cool morning. As my store boat did not come up last night, I dispatched my own battoe to Detroit in order to help and hurry them down here, so as to set off, having finished everything. Captain Jarvis is to have three chairs here this morning, for us to ride to the end of the settlement, being about six miles. This is a beautiful situation, and a dry, healthy place. At 9 o'clock, the chiefs of the Hurons met at my tent and returned an answer to all I said last night, hi the most friendly manner, as will appear by the minutes of this day in the records. I then gave them twenty kettles full of tobacco, about fifty damaged blankets, twenty pounds of powder and silver works, which greatly pleased them all. Captain Campbell, several officers of the Light Infantry, French and traders, came over to take leave of me and were present at the meeting; also the priest. Treated them and the Indians; set off my boats; and went with three chairs to Captain Jarvis where we took breakfast. Madame Jarvis accompanied us to our boats. In our way, called in at several houses to see some of the principal inhabitants. Dined with the company out of doors. Parted [from] them all at this place, which is called Isle de---. Set off at one, and encamped. At the west end of the lake, about two miles into the lake is the large island; nine leagues long and two miles broad; in several places very rocky ; worth taking up, and also Isle Bois with one thousand acres of land on the east shore, where the Hurons formerly lived. The Indians and inhabitants were all very kind, and extremely pleased with alt that was done at this meeting. We left their country with the greatest credit.
"Saturday 19th.-Fine morning. I took my first dose of electuary. Embarked at 6 o'clock, and went about five miles, where we were obliged to put ashore for a head wind, having taken in some water. Where we encamped is a drowned, swampy country, as is the west end of the lake for the most part. The lake runs generally S. S. W., at the end. Embarked at 1 o'clock, the wind being a little abated. Got to Stony Point. There the wind sprung up very fresh, and the waves ran very high, so that we took in water several times. Encamped at the next point from the Stony point, which is about nine miles distant. The wind still very high, and some of my boats not able to come up to me.
"Sunday 20th.-Fine weather, but wind contrary till 12 o'clock; then embarked, and crossed a great bay to Cedar Point. About the middle of the bay, almost opposite the Miami river, (1) is a small island, and about -five leagues to the E. of said island, is another larger in sight. This is the largest or deepest bay I have seen; and the end of the lake, near the Miami river, is about five leagues or more across. We crossed it with fine moderate weather, and encamped on Cedar Point, where I cut some cedar sticks to bring home. It is a pleasant encampment, and plenty of game. I gathered sand
1 Now known as the Maumee-corruption of Miami.
and shells here. It is about twenty-four miles from here to the camping place of Sandusky, which is a mile and a half across; from thence six mites to the Indian village.
"Monday 21st.- Set off from Cedar Point at 6 o'clock. Rowed till three [against] a contrary wind, along a narrow, low, sand beach, with drowned land and meadows within side-full of ducks and geese. Arrived at the carrying-place of Sandusky, which is on the-east side of a fine river; which river runs S. W., and is pretty large. Encamped here, as none of my boats are in sight. It is a pleasant place, and full of game. There is an island about ten miles off bearing about N. E., near the end of the point of land, Which makes the carrying-place. A Tawa (1) canoe came to us here, and gave me two wild geese. He had a scalp and belt hoisted in his canoe, which he took this last spring from the Cherokees. About six and seven o'clock my boats all arrived. I gave orders to get off early the next morning, so as to get round.
"Tuesday 22d.-I sent my boats round the point, and ordered them encamped at the east side of the entrance of Lake Sandusky into Lake Erie, which is about a mile across there to wait my coming. Then I crossed the carrying-place which is almost opposite one of the Wyandot towns, about six miles across the lake here. I sent Mr. Croghan to the Indian town, and went down the lake in a little birch canoe to the place where the block house is to be built by Mr. Myer. This place is about three leagues from the mouth of Lake Sandusky, where it disembogues itself into Lake Erie. They have a view of all boats which may pass or come in from said post. It is about three miles from another village of Hurons, and fifteen by water from the one opposite to the carrying-place, and nine by land. The Pennsylvania road comes by this post. This is one hundred and seventy miles from Presque Isle, and forty miles from Detroit. In the afternoon, set off from the post in the little canoe, and desired Mr. Croghan to follow me directly in order to give him what things I reserved for some Tawas, who received nothing at Detroit. I arrived at the encampment at sunset, when I ordered all the things to be left out and ready for morning.
"Wednesday 23d.-Stormy weather; wind N. W. Very rough sea; we cannot move. Last evening Mr. Croghan and Mr. Myer came to our camp and brought me a birch canoe. I gave Mr. Croghan
l Contraction for Ottawa.
his instructions, a memorandum for some things, and a letter, for Colonel Bouquet with the regulations for trade for Pittsborough. This morning delivered Mr. Croghan all the silver works for Sir William, (l) Killbuck, and Jacob, three Delaware chiefs. Also what goods I have for about thirty Tawas. I sent my -watch by Mr. Croghan to have it mended at Philadelphia. Then he parted [from] me about 9 o'clock, as did Mr. Myer. I gave the Tawas' two sons two; silver gorgets which pleased them much. The wind very high all the day and rises toward night. No stirring with my craft. In the night the wind blew so hard that we were all afloat in our encampment and beds, and could not move anywhere else, being on a sandy beech between two waters.
"Thursday 21st.-A very stormy morning. Wind hard at N. E. No possibility of stirring. I was obliged to move my camp into the woods about two hundred yards back, being all in the water. When first encamped, the sea washed over us. Everything quite wet. Last night a Tawa squaw came into my tent, quite wet, having fallen into the lake at 11 o'clock at night. About 2 o'clock P. M. began to rain very hard, which I hope will lower the wind.
"Friday 25th.-The weather cleared up a little, and the wind lulled a good deal, but a great gust yet remaining and swell. Embarked at 11 o'clock. The swell yet very great. One of my boats wrecked, but fitted her up in a manner so as to get her along. At a river within fifteen miles of Sandusky Lake, I saw three wolves on shore who had driven a fine buck into the lake, which I shot through the head; and in the evening, divided it among the party and Indians; it was enough for them all. The horns, skin and sinews I took with me as a trophy. Encamped about 6 o'clock; my boats all behind. The last or broken boat came up about 8 o'clock at night.
"Saturday 26th.-Fine, mild morning; not the least wind. Embarked at six of the clock and intend to beach near to Cayahoga this day. The Seneca tells me there is a good deal of high or steep banks to pass by this day, where there is no getting on shore. I found it so for the most part of this day's journey. Very bad banks, indeed, of rock and some places clay; very steep and high. The wind turned fair about 11 o'clock, and blew steady all the remainder of this day, which made this day's journey nearly forty miles. Encamped before six o'clock, on a beach. Pleasant enough. One
1 Probably named after Sir William.
boat behind a great way. We have a long point to turn to-morrow morning. This side of the lake from Sandusky is very full of turns and points running northward or rather N. Easterly. We came about thirty-six miles.
"Sunday 27th-A fine morning. I got up at 4 o'clock, and made ready to embark, so as to get as far as possible this fine weather. We rowed all day, the wind ahead. We passed two little rivers and some beaches for boats to go in; but the bank in general is steep. Arrived a little before sunset at a river, the entrance of which is very shallow and rapid, but deep fourteen or fifteen feet when you get in, and about one hundred yards wide. We came this day nearly thirty miles. My baggage-boats behind a considerable way.
"Monday 28th.-About 6 o'clock, my two boats came up and set off. We embarked immediately, the weather very good, but no wind; the day very warm. Passed three or four creeks and other good harbors for boats in cage of bad weather. At 6 o'clock, encamped in a very good creek and safe harbor. The creek about fifty yards wide, and pretty deep; two very steep hills at the entrance thereof; and the water of it of a very brown color. We came this day about thirty miles by our reckoning. The banks, this day's journey, are not quite so steep as those we passed these two days.
"Tuesday 29th.-At 6 o'clock embarked, and found the channel into this creek, but shallow. Sailed the greatest part of the day, with a good westerly wind; passed two or three creeks and some good beaches for landing. About two o'clock, appeared in sight the point near Presque Isle, which we did not expect was so near. About half after four arrived at the landing place, where we had a good deal of difficulty in landing on account of the great swell and surf which beat upon the beach. Got the boats and everything over this evening, but in a very wet condition. The fort of Presque Isle is about eight miles from here. This carrying-place is a sandy beach about one hundred yards across into a rushy bay. The neck or peninsula is eight miles long or thereabouts, and a mile over from the fort; the entrance is not the best.
"Wednesday 30th,.-Wind ahead or N. East. Set off at 7 o'clock, and arrived at Presque Isle block house about 9 o'clock. Captain Cockran, who commanded here, went yesterday for his health to Niagara. Met Mr. Jenkins of the Royal Americans here from Niagara, going to Detroit, in order to command at Wawiaghtenhook. He delivered me some letters and newspapers, but nothing very material. I gave some Chippawas some ammunition, tobacco, &c., who were in fact in great want of them. Dined with the officers, and after dinner intended to have set off, but the wind blew too hard ahead, so encamped here. Swapped my gun with a Chippewa Indian for a French gun. Gave the Indians a keg of rum to drink the king's health.
"Thursday October 1st.-Embarked at 7 o'clock, with the wind strong ahead. Continued so all the day; notwithstanding improved all day and got to Jadaghque creek and carrying place, which is a fine harbor and encampment. It is very dangerous from Presque Isle here, being a prodigious steep, rocky bank all the way, except two or three creeks and small beaches, where a few boats may run into. There are several very beautiful streams of water or springs, which tumble down the rocks. We came about forty miles this day. The fire was burning yet where Captain Cockran, I suppose, encamped at last night. Here the French had a baking-place, and here they had meetings, and assembled the Indians when first going to Ohio, and bought this place of them. Toonadawanusky, the river we stopped yesterday at, is so called.
"Friday 2d.-A very stormy morning; wind not fair; however, sent off my two baggage-boats, and ordered them to stop about thirty miles off in a river. The Seneca Indian tells me, we may get this day to the end of the lake. I embarked at 8 o'clock with all the rest, and got about thirty, miles when a very great storm of wind and rain arose, and obliged us to put into a little creek between the high rocky banks. The wind turned N. W., and rained very hard. We passed the Mohawks in a bay about four miles from here. Some of our boats are put into other places as well as they can. My bedding is on board the birch canoe of mine with the Indians somewhere ahead. The lake turns away greatly to the north-east and looks like low land. From Presque Isle here, is all high bank except a very few spots where boats may land. In the evening, sent the Oneida-to the Mohawks' encampment to learn what news below.
"Saturday 3d.-A very stormy morning; rained and blew all the night prodigious hard. About 8 o'clock this morning the Mohawks came to my tent, and told me what news they had. They desired me to acquaint their people that they intend to hunt this winter at Cherage creek and return early in the spring. Aaron says he may go to Sandusky. Hance will not go farther but return to Niagara, and will wait there for the other. I met them at Kanandaweron. They were all well and out about forty-eight days to this time. They parted from me about 12 o'clock, when the wind began to abate. At two, ordered my boats to be made ready in order to set off as soon as the weather and roughness of the lake may allow. We are now about thirty miles from the entrance of the river, where the vessel lies. Set off at 3 o'clock with all the boats except two, which separated yesterday in the storm. We rowed and sailed till night, and could find no harbor; so continued rowing till eight at night, when we got into a bay within_____miles of the river's mouth. We very narrowly escaped a parcel of breakers after night, about two hundred yards from the shore, which was near demolishing us. Neither of my two baggage-boats seen or heard of yesterday.
"Sunday 4th.-Very fine morning. The land on the other side of the lake in view. Embarked at 7 o'clock, and rowed near shore about six miles. Then set off across for the river, where we met Captain Robinson sounding. It is three, four, and five fathoms water near the mouth of the river. We went on board the schooner which lay about a mile from the entrance of the lake in the river, where the current runs six knots an hour. She has about ninety barrels of provisions on board, and twenty-four barrels for Gage's sutler. Captain Robinson told us that the garrison of Niagara, himself and crew, were lately within a day or two of abandoning the fort, vessel, &c, when provisions arrived from Oswego. Dined on board, and left the vessel about 5 o'clock, and encamped about ten miles down the river. One boat yet behind since the storm.
"Monday 5th.-Embarked, and called to see Jno. Dies on the island, where he is building a sloop, which will not be finished this season, he says, as he goes down in a fortnight, his men being sickly. Arrived at Little Niagara about 10 o'clock, and got over on horseback myself, and got wagons to carry over as many of my boats, baggage, &c., as I could. Then set off in an old boat for Niagara, where I was met at 8 o'clock at night by the waterside, by Major Walters and all the officers. Supped with the Major, and took up my old lodgings.
"Tuesday 6th.-I wrote Ferrall Wade by a trader. Heard the state of the garrison here, which is very bad for want of provisions, having but six days' flour. The Major, De Couagne, &c., complain of Sterling monopolizing the trade by keeping a great store of goods at Little Niagara,, which will prevent any Indians coming to the fort, or under the eye of the garrison, so that they [i. e. Stirling and others] may cheat the Indians as much as they please, in spite of all regulations.
"Wednesday 7th.-Fine warm weather. Doctor Stevenson visited me yesterday, and gave me some bottles of curious liquor for my own use. I returned the compliment. My boats are not yet arrived which will detain me this day. Captain Cockran desires to go in company with me to Oswego, which I agreed to. He is going to the doctor or surgeon of the hospital there. This day I clothed and discharged the Seneca Indian who accompanied me to Detroit. Ordered my party to be ready to set off to-morrow. This day the little schooner appeared in sight, and with a contrary wind was obliged to work in by tripping. She brought forty barrels of flour but no news or letters for me. The garrison of Oswego, Major Duncan writes, has but nine days flour. This evening, the Seneca who accompanied me to Detroit, came and received his present, when he told me that the Coghnawageys, Ottawas, &c., had a council at Onondaga in the spring, at which they entreated the Six Nations to rise and join them against the English, who were now overrunning the country and oppressing them everywhere where there was a garrison; that it was easy now to do it in. Canada, being thin and dispersed. The Six Nations, he says, refused, and told them that as the English had conquered their Father the French, they must be content and bear it. Besides they, the Six Nations, had no reason to regard anything the Coghnawageys said, as they of late acted independent of them. He says that the Coghnawageys and four other nations came and called a council a second time at Onondaga, at which they begged that all the warriors would be present. He says, they did accordingly attend, but does not know the result, as it was about the time he went with me to Detroit, but assures me that if his father, the Old Belt, desires him, he will bring me all the news, and what the result of the council was.
"Thursday 8th.-Fine morning, but windy. Settled everything here. Dined with Major Walters, and at 5 o'clock embarked. Sea very high, and wind still rising. About half after six, put ashore at Petite Marie with difficulty, and encamped here. My birch canoe not come up; a very stormy night; wind at N. N. W. The schooner was to have sailed at 4 o'clock, but could not get out for the wind and swell.
"Friday 9th.-Wind at N. E.; very strong; no stirring with boats. This is a fair wind to carry the vessel into Lake Erie, if ever she can get in. I gave Collin Andrews and Barret Visger a pass for three canoes to La Bay, which Captain Canipbell is to pay me £5 for. My birch canoe is just come up with difficulty. Lieutenant Hay and De Couagne came to see me, and went hack at sunset.
"Saturday 10th.-Still blustering weather; wind contrary. The vessel came out, and makes but little way. I never passed so bad a night with a pain in my right thigh, and cold night. This day shall set off if possible. The wind increased to a degree that the vessel was obliged to put back to Niagara. Mr. Johnson gone to Niagara, for half a dozen pounds of powder, ours being wet. I took physic this morning which purged me tolerably. Major Walters came to see me, and spent the afternoon. I never had a worse night than this in my life.
"Sunday 11th.-A fine morning; wind ahead. Major Walters came to see me, but I was ill abed, so he went away. At half after nine set off. Sea rough and wind ahead. Put into a creek about two miles from hence, a very fine harbor. About twelve, a birch canoe came to us from Oswego. They were from Cayuga, and were going a hunting to Sandusky. I gave them some tobacco and pipes, which they were much pleased with. One of them is a Sappony, and was at the East town meeting. He could tell me nothing except that it was about land affairs. Last night three Senecas came to me for powder, having got none at Niagara; gave them also pipes and tobacco. I was very bad all this day and night with pains in my thigh and downwards, so that I could not walk or stand up without help, nor sleep a wink.
"Monday 12th.-A fine morning, but cold and contrary wind; the sea too rough to move, and our provisions growing very short. A Seneca chief came to my encampment, and was, on my desire and using him kindly, very open and candid with regard to the late conspiracy of the Senecas, which I got Lieutenant Johnson to take down in writing. Gave him some powder, clothing, and a letter to Major Walters to use him kindly. He, with some others of his nation, have with them several horses, in order to deliver them agreeably to my desire, on my way to Detroit. About one o'clock embarked, and got to a large creek and harbor for any number of boats, about fourteen miles from Niagara Fort. We espied a sail from Oswego, and sent Lieutenant Johnson on board to ask for letters and some provisions for my party, having but four days [provisions]. He returned at nine at night; found it to be a sloop loaded chiefly with provisions for Niagara from La Gallete, viz: three hundred and ninety barrels of pork and flour, some live stock, &c. No letter for me, but brought a barrel of pork and one of flour for the men. I had a very bad night of it, with a pain of my thighs.
"Tuesday 13th.-A fine morning, but the wind still ahead, and a great swell and surf, so that there is no stirring early. Wherefore ordered my boat, which is become very leaky by carrying over at Niagara, to be corked and pitched as well as they can. The master of the sloop says that there is a considerable quantity of provisions at Fort William Augustus; and that the Provincials are all to leave Oswegotties creek and go home, their time having almost expired. I took physic this day, which worked pretty well. My pain ceased a good deal this night.
"Wednesday 14th.-A fine morning, -with a smart white frost. I ordered the boats to be loaded, and set off at 6 o'clock; the wind yet pretty contrary. I saw a good many geese this morning. Passed by several good harbors and creeks. The wind lulled, and we rowed about thirty miles to a small creek, where I encamped on the bank, in the woods. This day met a trader's boat. They had been twelve days from Oswego; and said the news of a peace had reached Oswego. My pains have abated a good deal since yesterday, but my cough continues as bad as usual.
"Thursday 15th.-A fine frosty morning as yesterday; little or no wind. The schooner from Niagara passed by for Oswego. Embarked at 7 o'clock. About ten the wind turned in our favor, but it was a very small breeze. About one o'clock, passed Johnson's Harbor, and several good creeks for boats. At four, arrived at Prideaux's Bay, which we found shut up. Nevertheless encamped here on the beach. The pain of my thigh is very much abated, but my cough as usual, having nothing to take for it.
"Friday 16th.-Fine morning; not cold. I got up at 3 o'clock, in order to set off early, the wind being tolerably fair and fresh. Embarked at 6 o'clock, and got to Irondequot at a half an hour after nine. It is about fifteen miles distant; the Seneca river about midway. I stopped at Irondequot, and went shooting for about an hour and a half. Then embarked, and with a fair wind got within six or eight miles of Sodus about 7 o'clock, where I had my boats drawn up and encamped in an Indian encampment. Bourke kept on-with my baggage-boats to Sodus.
"Saturday 17th.-Very fine weather; -wind pretty fair. We embarked at 7 o'clock, after having refreshed the men and given them two days provision, and set off for Sodus which is in sight and in appearance not above six miles off. This is the only harbor along the south side of the lake for vessels. It is thirteen feet deep over the bar. From Sodas to Oswego, very steep banks and few good harbors for boats. This was a very warm day, as was yesterday. We arrived within two miles of Oswego about sundown, and encamped on the gravely beach. About twelve at night, began to rain; surf abated.
"Sunday 18th.-A fine warm day. Embarked at 7 o'clock, and arrived at Oswego about eight. Found all well there, and the works in a good deal of forwardness. Dined at Major Duncan's, who complained greatly at the scarcity of flour, and the slowness of its being sent up. Walked round the fort and gardens. The former is very neat as far as finished. It will take another season to finish it. Supped with Major Duncan, Captain Cockran, &c. The latter is to take his passage with me to-morrow morning at 8 o'clock. Doctor Barr is to make up some things for me to take along. I crossed the river at eleven at night and went to my tent, where I found all my boats' crew drunk.
"Monday 19th.- A fine, pleasant morning, I set off at 9 o'clock and arrived at half way creek at twelve, where I found several huts and a house, which were built for parties who cut timber here. I was obliged to wait here all the day, without victuals or drink, my boats not having come up. An Indian of Cayuga told me that the Chenusios has pressed the other nations to join them in a war against the English, which they all refused, and advised the Chenusios to defer doing anything until I returned, and they knew what was done among the western and Ottawa nations by me. He said the Englishman was speaker, and that the Six Nations expect that I will call them all down to my house, as soon as I get home. Their being debarred the use of powder, or liberty of purchasing it by General Amherst, is the chief cause of their discontent, as they are perishing for the want of it. I have seen a Cayuga Indian pay at Oswego yesterday four salmon (which they sell for a dollar apiece) for about half a pound of powder, which is thirty-two shillings, or three pounds four shillings for a pound. My boats came up at 11 o'clock in the night, with all my baggage wet.
"Tuesday 20th.-A fine morning. Embarked at 8 o'clock, and
arrived at the Falls at 11 o'clock. Got over everything. At five
P. M., dined with Ensign Meut, and embarked at 6 P. M., and encamped on the little island. I walked from the half way creek to the Falls, which increased, the pain of my thigh greatly.
"Wednesday 21st.-A fine morning, and warm day. Embarked at 8 o'clock. At the Three River Rift, met Sir Robert. Davis and Captain Etherington, who gave me a packet of letters from General Amherst, and a copy of a treaty held at Easton, in August, by Mr. Hamilton of Philadelphia, and some scattering Indians about that part of the country; all of little or no consequence. Encamped about three miles above the Three Rivers. Captain Etherington told me Molly was delivered of a girl; that all were well at my house, where they stayed two days.
"Thursday 22d.-Very wet morning. Rained almost all the night pretty hard, and all the day incessantly, so that we could not move. There is some very good land about the Three Rivers on both sides.
"Friday 23d.-A raw, cold morning after the rain. Ordered my boats to be made ready, and embarked at 8 of the clock. Rained a little all day. Met several sutlers' and traders' boats going to Oswego. Arrived at fort Brewerton at 5 o'clock. Supped with Lieutenant Brown, who told us General Amherst was to go home, and the army to go to Mississippi; by whom commanded he did not know. Yesterday at 12 o'clock, there was such a storm as emptied the river by this post of water, so that several salmon and other fish were left dry for a while.
"Saturday 24th.-Rained this morning, and from 12 o'clock last night, so that I hope the water will be good in Wood creek. The wind fair for crossing the lake. Ordered the boats ready to embark. Very raw, cold, and wet weather. I was very full of pain all night with my old wound. Embarked at 9 o'clock. Wind turned ahead after we got about eight miles into the lake, and continued so all the day. Arrived at the royal block house at the E. end of Oneida lake after sunset. Went to the fort and supped with Captain Baw, Gray and Mr. Burns. At 8 o'clock went to camp and drank a few glasses of Maderia with Mr. Burns, &c., and went to bed early as usual.
"Sunday 25th.-A wet morning; rained almost all the night. Drew two days provision for the party, ordered my boats ready, and embarked at 10 o'clock. Very wet, disagreeable day, but very good water. Encamped near the Oak Field about 5 o'clock. Rained very hard, and little or no fire. Some of the Oneida chiefs came and told me how the affair, which Captain Baw complained of, happened. As they relate it I don't think they were to blame, having only desired a little provision as usual, and that the garrison would not fish in the creek -which comes by their village, but leave that to them, and they might fish anywhere else they pleased. I gave them a long lesson and desired they would behave well, and live in friendship with their brethren everywhere, which they promised to do. I gave them some tobacco and pipes, and so parted.
"Monday 26th.-A dark, gloomy morning, after a very wet night. Rains still a little. The Wood creek very high, so that I expect to reach Fort Stanwix this day. Embarked at 8 o'clock. Reached the Oak Field by half after nine o'clock; got up to Canada creek about twelve. From thence to the sluice at Fort Bull, where we met with great difficulty getting up and through, the sluice being out of order. Set off for New-Post, where we arrived about eight at night. Were obliged to have candles lighted in our boats to drag and get up as well as we could. Lieutenant Johnson and myself walked through the woods with the light of a candle to Fort New-Post, where I found a party of the Yorkers lying ready to carry provisions to Oswego. From thence walked with Doctor Peters to the fort, after ordering the sluice open to carry, up the boats. Supped with Captain Ogilvie, Mr. Fister, and Doctor Peters, and at 10 o'clock went to bed.
"Friday 27th.-A fine morning. I got up early, and ordered my boats and baggage over the camping place. I yesterday stopped and took their passport from Messrs. Fonda and Neukirk, which was for the Senecas, &c., and gave them one for Oswego, Niagara, Oneida Lake, &c. I took another pass from one Knox, which was for La Galette, and gave him a proper one. Dined and supped with Captain Ogilvie, and after dinner walked down to see my boats come over, and gave orders for embarking early to-morrow morning. The fort here, as far as finished, is very neat, but will require another summer to finish it, as will Oswego also.
"Wednesday 28th.-A fine, frosty morning. All things ready. Embarked at 10 o'clock. The water in the river very good though falling. Yesterday Colonel Whiting and Captain Ogilvie told me the Provincials who were sent to fetch provisions up from the little falls, were just returned without provisions, there being no battoes at the falls. They all cry out against, and greatly blame the quartermaster generals for the scarcity at all the garrisons, some of whom were lately within a very little of abandoning their posts. Arrived at Fort Schuyler at 4 o'clock. Drank some punch -with Lieutenant Smith, who made me a present of a fine pointer, which he had of Sir Robert Davis. He told me he wrote the general for the land round that fort. I promised him a farm there in case I succeeded in the purchase I was about of all the lands which belonged to Governor Cosby's heirs, which I shall do. I set off and encamped about three miles below the fort. Fine, pleasant day, but cool in the evening.
"Thursday 29th.-A fine morning, but cold and frosty. Embarked at 8 o'clock, and arrived at Conradt Frank's by 12 o'clock. Dined there, and set off for Canajoharie, where I arrived at 7 o'clock at night. Lodged at Brant's.
"Friday 30th.-Fine morning, but smart white frost. Set off at 8 o'clock Dined at Hannis Eil's, and arrived at my house about half after seven at night, where I found all my family well, so ended my tour- Gloria Deo Soli.
In the fly-leaf of the above diary, I find the following carefully noted down:
Garrisons, in Time of Peace, 1761.
Fort Wm. Augustus..50
Miamis 20, St. Joseph 30..50
Port in the Bay, 20, Warriaghta 30...50
Venango 30, LaBoeuf 20..50
Bedford 12, Legonier 12..24
East End Block House..8
Halifax, Annapolis Royal, &c.....1200
For a Relief. 10,000 men
to James F. Morrison for loaning his book for the purpose of putting it on
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