History From America's Most Famous Valleys
Frontiersmen of New York
by Jeptha R. Simms
Albany, NY 1883
Volume I, Page 488
Journal of the Tryon County Committee of Vigilance,-As I have before me the manuscript journal of the Tryon county Committee of Safety, I take pleasure in giving the reader the benefit of more of its proceedings than have been heretofore published. It has been retained in the family of Major John Frey, one of its most efficient members, since the Revolution, and is now in possession of his great-grandson, Mr. S. Ludlow Frey, of Palatine Bridge, N. Y. A few of its leaves have been partially burned ; but most of it can still be made out. It contains an account also, of most of the early county meetings. The first District meeting was in 1774, and its proceedings were as follows ;
County of Tryon-First Meeting of Palatine District.- Whereas the British Parliament has lately passed an act for raising a Revenue in America without the consent of our Representative, to abridging the privileges of the American colonies, and therefore blocking up the port of Boston ; the freeholders and inhabitants of the county of Tryon aforesaid, looking with concern and heartfelt sorrow on these alarming and calamitous conditions, do meet this 27th day of August, 1774, on that purpose, at the house of Adam Loucks, Esq., at Stonearabia, and conclude the Resolves following, viz.:
" I. That King GEORGE the Third, is Lawful and Rightful Lord and Sovereign of Great Britain and the dominions thereto belonging ; and that, as part of his subjects, we hereby testify that we will bear true faith and allegiance to him, and that we will with our lives and fortunes support and maintain him upon the Throne of his ancestors, and the just dependence of these his Colonies upon the Crown of Great Britain.
II. That we think and consider it as our greatest happiness to be governed by the Laws of Great Britain ; and that with cheerfulness we will always pay submission thereunto, as far as we consistently can, with the security of the constitutional rights and liberties of English subjects, which are so sacred that we cannot permit the same to be violated.
III. That we think it is our undeniable privilege to be taxed only with our own consent, given by ourselves or by our representatives. That taxes otherwise laid and exacted are unjust and unconstitutional. That the late Acts of Parliament declarative of this right of laying internal taxes on the American colonies are obvious encroachments on the rights and liberties of the British subjects in America.
IV. That the Act for blocking up the port of Boston is oppressive and arbitrary, injurious in its principles, and particularly oppressive to the inhabitants of Boston, who we consider as brethren suffering in the common cause.
V. That we will unite and join with the different districts of this county, in giving whatever relief it is in our power to the poor distressed inhabitants of Boston, and that we will join and unite with our brethren of the rest of this colony in anything tending to support and defend our rights and liberties.
VI. That we think the sending of delegates from the different colonies to a general Continental Congress is a salutary measure, and absolutely necessary at this alarming crisis, and that we entirely approve of the five gentlemen chosen delegates for this colony by our brethren of New York, hereby adopting and choosing the same persons to represent this colony at the Congress.
VII. That we hereby engage faithfully to abide by and adhere to such restrictions and regulations as shall be made and agreed upon by the said Congress.
VIII. That we consider it necessary that there be appointed a standing committee of this county to correspond with the committees of New York and Albany, and we do hereby appoint Christopher P. Yates, Isaac Paris, John Frey and Andrew Finck, Jr., who, together with persons to be appointed by the other districts of this county, shall compose a committee of correspondence, to convey the sentiments of this county in a set of resolutions to New York.
IX. It is voted by this meeting that copies of the proceedings of this day, certified by the chairman, be transmitted to the supervisors of the different districts of this county; and we recommend it to the inhabitants of the said district to appoint persons to compose also a committee of correspondence."
The reader will observe by the spirit and tone of the above resolutions, that love of liberty was quite early becoming deeply seated in the breasts of the pioneer settlers. We may conjecture that similar organizations took place nearly as early, and similar resolves were promulgated in the other districts of the county, but their records have not been preserved. Border enthusiasm, however, was not like the handle of a jug, all on one side. The loyalists, under the leadership of the Johnsons and Butlers, were also active in circulating papers in and around Johnstown, condemning the course of the Whigs, and pledging their influence on all occasions to the crown. Such counter action, as before hinted, led to frequent, turmoil and vituperation.
A General Association.-As early as April 29, 1775, the following General Association was agreed to, and subscribed by the patriotic citizens of New York city : * " Persuaded that the salvation of the rights and liberties of America depends, under God, on the firm union of its inhabitants in a vigorous prosecution of the measures necessary for its safety ; and convinced of the necessity of preventing the anarchy and confusion on which attend a dissolution of the powers of government, we, the freemen, freeholders and inhabitants of the city and county of New York, being greatly alarmed at the avowed design of the ministry to raise a revenue in America, and shocked by the bloody scene now acting in the Massachusetts Bay, do, in the most solemn manner, resolve never to become slaves ; and do associate under all the ties of religion, honor and love to our country, to adopt and endeavor to carry into execution whatever measures may be recommended by the Continental Congress, or resolved upon by our Provincial Convention for the purpose of preserving our Constitution, and opposing the execution of the several arbitrary and oppressive acts of the British Parliament, until a reconciliation between Great Britain and America, on constitutional principles (which we most ardently desire) can be obtained ; and that we will, in all things, follow the advice of our General Committee, respecting the purposes aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of individual and private property."
On May 26th, the Provincial Congress recommended the signing of the above association to all the committees of counties and towns in the State, which was generally done.
The Second Meeting of the Palatine District Committeealso took place at the house of Adam Loucks, in Stonearabia-supposed an inn-on Thursday, May 11, 1775. The burden of this meeting was the passage of the following bond of association :
"WHEREAS, the grand jury of this and a number of the magistrates have signed a declaration declaring their disapprobation of the just opposition made by the colonies of the oppressive and arbitrary acts of the parliament, the purport of
* Jour. of Prov. Congress, p. 5.
which is evidently to entail slavery on America, and as the said declaration may in some measures be looked upon as the sense of the county in general, if the same be passed over in silence.- We the subscribers, freeholders and inhabitants of the said county, inspired with a sincere love for our country, and deeply interested in the common cause, do solemnly declare our fixed attachment to, and entire approbation of the proceedings of the grand Continental Congress held at Philadelphia last fall, and that we will strictly adhere and abide by the same. We do also solemnly declare and express our confidence in the wisdom and integrity of the present Continental Congress, and that we will support the same to the utmost of our power, and that we will religiously and inviolably observe the regulations and proceedings of that august body."
" The following persons were appointed to be a standing committee of the district, to correspond with the committee of this and other counties, viz.:
Christopher P. Yates,
Andrew Finck, Jr.,
George Ecker, Jr.,
Harmanus Van Slyck,
Christopher W. Fox,
Anthony Van Vechten.
On the assembling of the State Provincial Congress, the county of Tryon was not therein represented ; of which fact that body was seasonably reminded by the Continental Congress, which in turn called on the committee of Tryon county : whereupon, not being able to obtain the sense of the county, that body, June 11, appointed two of its most efficient members as delegates, Christopher P. Yates and John Marlatt, who were admitted to membership June 20th.
The Third Meeting of the Palatine District Committee, occurred on Friday, May 19, 1775-where is not mentioned- when nine of its twelve members were present, Mr. Yates acting as chairman. The burden of this meeting was, the indicting of a long letter to the Albany committee. They stated that the district they represented had been foremost in the county, in avowing its attachment to liberty, saying they were signing an association, similar to one signed in other counties. They continued ; " This county has, for a series of years, been ruled by one family [of Johnsons], the different branches of which are still strenuous in dissuading people from coming into congressional measures, and even last week at a numerous meeting of the Mohawk district [this embraced the Johnstown settlements and those along both sides of the Mohawk river], appeared with all their dependants armed, to oppose the people from considering of their grievances, their number being so large and the people unarmed, struck terror into most of them, and they dispersed.* We are informed, that Johnson Hall is fortified by placing swivels round + the building and that Col. [Sir John] Johnson has had part of his regiment of royalists under arms yesterday, no doubt with a design to prevent the lovers of liberty, from publishing their attachment for it to the world. Besides which we are told that a body of Highlanders (Roman Catholics) in and about Johnstown, are armed and ready to march upon the like occasion.- We are also informed, that Col. [Guy] Johnson has stopped two New England men and searched them, being we suppose suspicious that they come to solicit aid from us or the Indians, who we dread most, there being a current report through the county that they are to be made use of in keeping us in awe." After introducing some other matters, and speaking of their being in a new county and remote from the metropolis, they closed their letter as follows : "We are determined although few in numbers, to let the world see who are not attached to American Liberty, and to wipe off the indellible disgrace brought on us by the Declaration signed by our grand
*This, was no doubt, the meeting referred to by Col. Stone-Life of Brant, vol. 1, p 53-when, as he states, at a meeting of whigs held at the house of John Veeder, in Caughnawaga (now Fonda), several hundred unarmed men had assembled for consultation and the erection of a liberty pole : an emblem obnoxious to loyalists. While thus deliberating, Sir John Johnson and his brother-in-law, with a large number of aimed retainers, arrived there to put an end to their proceedings, Guy Johnson harangued the multitude In an offensive manner to those who had first assembled, and who had a perfect right to be there he became so abusive that Jacob Sammons, waxing warm and zealous, called him a d-rt liar and villain Johnson and Sammons had a clench, when a hireling of the intruders felled him with a leaded whip Recovering somewhat and knocking an adversary from his person, he sprang to his feet, but was again knocked down and severely beaten. On recovering his feet again, he found that his friends had left, except a few, prominent among whom were the Visschers, Fondas, and Veeders. This daring Sammons, who was not afraid to beard the lion in his den,-Stone thought-bore the sirst Revolutionary scars In Tryon county.
+ The words in italics are supplied where the original words are defaced by fire, except those at the end of the sentence.
jury and some of our magistrates, who in general are considered by the majority of the county, as enemies to their country. In a word gentlemen, it is our fixed resolution to support and carry into execution every thing recommended by the Continental and Provinical Congress, and to be free or die!"
Here is a letter not in these minutes, written at this period, and found elsewhere, that belongs in this connection ;*
" GUY PARK, May 18, 1775.
" GENTLEMEN : We have, for some days past, heard of many threats from the public, that give us reason to apprehend that the persons or properties of gentlemen of the first consequence, both with respect to station and property, would have been insulted in this county, and myself in particular, under color of a gross and notorious falsehood, uttered by some worthless scoundrels, respecting my intentions as Superintendent of Indian affairs. To gentlemen of sense and moderation these malicious, ill-founded charges ought to be self-evidently false, as my duty is to promote peace, and my office of the highest importance to the trade and frontiers; but as these reports are-daily increasing, it becomes me, both as a subject and a man, to disavow them, and until I can find out and chastise the infamous author, to assure the public of their mistake, and to acquaint them that it has rendered it my duty for self-preservation, so necessary, that I have taken precaution to give a very hot and disagreeable reception to any persons who shall invade my retreat; at the same time I have no intention to disturb those who choose to permit me the honest exercise of my reason and the duties of my office; and requesting that you will immediately cause this to be made public to the Albany Committee.
" I remain, gent'n, your very humble serv't,
" G. JOHNSON.
" To the Committee of Schenectada."
The Fourth Meeting of the Palatine Committee was held on Sunday, May 21, l775, at the house of Philip W. Fox, who resided near the Stone Church on the turnpike. Nine of the twelve members were present. A letter from the Mohawk Indians to the Oneidas, translated into English, was, with a letter
* Jour. Of N. Y. Prov. Congress, vol. 2, p. 34.
from Guy Johnson to the magistrates of the county, laid before the meeting ; and after duly considering them, and the defenseless state of the county, etc., they passed five spirited resolutions, the second of which closed with this emphatic sentence : "We mean never to submit to any arbitrary acts of any power under heaven, or to any illegal and unwarrantable action of any man or set of men." The last two resolves were as follows :
4th. "That Col. Johnson's conduct in raising fortifications around his house, keeping a number of Indians and other armed men constantly about him, and stopping and searching travelers upon the King's highway, and stopping communication with Albany, is very alarming to this county, and highly arbitrary, illegal, oppressive and unwarrantable, and confirms us in our fears, that his design is to keep us in awe, and oblige us to submit to a state of slavery.
5th. " That as we abhor a state of slavery, we do join and unite together under all the ties of religion, honor, justice and love for our country, never to become slaves, and to defend our freedom with our lives and fortunes!"
They also ordered letters to be sent by express to the German Flats districts; and to the committee at Albany.
The Fifth Committee Meeting was of all the county districts except the Mohawk, and met on Wednesday, May 24, 1775, at the house of William Seeber, one of the members, in Canajoharie district. His house and store stood on Sand Hill, half a mile westward of Fort Plain, where now stands the farm house occupied in 1876 by Adam Lipe. C. P. Yates was chosen chairman.
At this meeting the Palatine delegates stated what was done at their last meeting, as did those of German Flats and Kingsland united; the latter introducing the speech of an Oneida Indian, and their reply to it. All of which was approved by this meeting. It was resolved to send a delegation of four to commune with the committees of Albany and Schenectada upon their present situation in the valley, etc., with instructions to buy powder, flints and lead. The delegation was, for Palatine Daniel McDougal, for Canajoharie David Cox, and for the western districts Edward Wall and Duncan McDougal. It was also resolved, that as threats of arrest and imprisonment had been made by the loyal party against some members of the committee, for their "just opposition" to kingly rule, that they would to the utmost of their power rescue such persons if imprisoned, " unless they were confined by legal process, issued upon legal ground and executed in a legal manner." It was further ordered that the proceedings of their meetings should not be divulged to any one outside of the committees.
The next meeting was appointed at the house of Warner Tygert, at the Fall Hill-and future meetings were to be alternately held there and at the house of William Seeber ; both of which were in the Canajoharie district. Warner Dygert, as now written, then kept a public house at the foot of Fall Hill, but a little distance from the Gen. Herkimer house (which is still standing below Little Falls), the general being a member of the Canajoharie committee. This Dygert was afterwards murdered by the Indians, as I shall have occasion to show.
In the minutes of these meetings, letters were referred to the letter page, Indian matters to the Indian page, committees, oaths to oath page, etc. None of those pages are now found with the journal.
The Sixth meeting of the Palatine Committee, was held on Monday, the 29th May, 1775, at the house of William Seeber, at Canajoharie, as I suppose to accommodate the committee of the Mohawk district, six members of which as visitors were present, Mr. Seeber also representing the Canajoharie district as a visitor. As the names of the Mohawk committee who were at this meeting all appear at the next, except that of Abraham Yates, I shall defer their publication until then.
After the border troubles began, there was very little intercourse between whig and tory families from mutual repugnance, especially where living remote from each other, which state of things increased with the progress of the war. Here is the evidence of one of the first movements toward the breaking up of social intercourse in the Mohawk valley. At this meeting it was Resolved, to recommend to the inhabitants, to have no dealing or connection in the way of trade with any person whatsoever, who has not signed the association entered into by this district. Also, Resolved, That owners of slaves and servants do not permit them to absent themselves from home, either by night or day, unless upon their owner's business, with a certificate specifying such business ; and persons infringing those resolutions were to be dealt with as enemies to their country.
It was requested of every friend to the country, to arrest and secure servants and slaves not having such certificates. These resolves were to be published at all public places in the district. The committee also considered the calamitous condition of the inhabitants of the Mohawk district, owing, as presumed, to the espionage of the Johnson family residing it it-tendering their sympathy and looking to a general meeting of the committees for some relief.
The Seventh Meeting was one of the county committees of all the districts, on Friday, June 2, 1775, at the house of Warner Tygert of Canajoharie district.
Members present from:
Messrs. Isaac Paris, Messrs.
Christopher P. Yates,
Andrew Finck, Jr.,
George Ecker, Jr,,
Harmanus Van Slyck,
Christopher W. Fox,
Anthony Van Vechten.
Abraham Van Horn,
This was the first meeting at which all of the county districts were represented, and 43 delegates were present. Just how many there were in each district, except Palatine, is not stated in the minutes ; probably 10 to 12. Some were so remote from the places of meeting that they seldom, if ever, attended. Besides, some changes may have taken place. Abraham Yates once represented the Mohawk district, and Jacob Weaver the German Flats ; while Conradt Pickert, David Cox and Henry Heints were at some meetings for Canajoharie. Christopher P. Yates, Esq., was, as of previous ones, the presiding officer of the meeting under consideration, which was, perhaps, the most important one held in the county.
Its first business was to dictate a long letter to Col. Guy Johnson, who, from his relative position to the Indians, was looked upon as the head and front of the loyal cause in the county. They spoke of the fears entertained by the people in consequence of a dropped letter found in the road, written in the Mohawk dialect, and addressed to the Oneidas,* which intimated the destruction of the settlements along the river, their fears having been allayed by a letter from him (Johnson) to the magistrates and supervisors of the Upper Districts. They further stated that they had followed the example of other counties in this and other colonies, to meet and in a peaceable manner consider the dispute between the mother country and the colonies ; also to consult about their common safety, their rights and liberties being infringed by the British Parliament, in sending troops to the Massachusetts Bay. They claimed it as the birthright of English subjects, to be exempted from all
* This is the translation of the letter alluded to:
" WRITTEN AT GUY JOHSON'S May, 1778.
" This is your letter, you great ones or sachems Guy Johnson says he will be glad if you get this intelligence your Oneydas had. It goes with him, and he Is now more certain concerning the intention of the Boston people. Guy Johnson is in great fear of being taken prisoner by the Bostoners
" We Mohawks are obliged to watch him constantly;
therefore we send you this Intelligence, that you shall know it; and Guy Johnson
assures himself and depends upon your coming to his assistance, and that you
will, without fail, be of that opinion. He believes not that you will let
him suffer: we therefore expect you in a couple of days time. So much at present
we send, but so far as to you Oueydas; but afterwards, perhaps, to all the
other Nations. We conclude and expect that you will have concern for our ruler,
Guy Johnson, because we are all united.
" AARON KANOENBARON,
" JOHANNES TEGARIHOGE,
" N. B.-Joseph Brant is Guy Johnson's Interpreter."-Correspondence of the Prov. Congress, vol.. 2, p. 83.
and also claimed the right by the law of self-preservation and the constitutional laws of England, to meet peaceably as they had done, to consider the matters agitating the country.
"This meeting," say they, "we probably would have postponed a while, had there been the least kind of probability that the petition of the General Assembly would have been noticed, more than the united petition of almost the whole continent of America by their delegates in Congress, which, so far from being in any way complied with, was treated with superlative contempt by the ministry, and fresh oppressions were and are daily heaped upon us ; upon which principles-principles which are undeniable-we have been appointed to concert methods to contribute what little lies in our power, to save our devoted country from ruin and desolation, which, with the assistance of Divine Providence, it is our fixed and determined resolution to do, and, if called upon, we shall be foremost in sharing the toil and danger of the field. "We consider New England suffering in the common cause, and commiserate their distressed situation ; and we should, be wanting in our duty to our country, to ourselves and to our posterity, if we were any longer backward in avowing our determination to the world."
They said that some of their members had been accused of compelling people to come into their measures, and of drinking treasonable toasts, which were false and malicious accusations, set afloat to injure them in the estimation of the world. They told him they were not ignorant of the great importance of his office as Superintendent of the Indians ; thanked him for meeting them in the upper part of the county (he was then at Cosby's Manor, 10 or 12 miles above where they were assembled) to allay the fears of the inhabitants ; hoped he would prevent the Indians from committing any irregularities on their way down to Guy Park, and begged of him to dissuade the Indians from interfering in the dispute between the mother country and tier colonies, and added :
" We cannot think that, as you and your family are possessing very large estates in this county, you are unfavorable to American freedom ; although you may differ with us in the mode of obtaining a redress of grievances."
They further said they could not pass over in silence the interruption experienced by the people of Mohawk district at one of their meetings ; and also spoke of the inhuman treatment of a man, who, faithful to his employers, refused to give an account of the receipt of certain persons, who had no right to demand anything of the kind. They remonstrated against his constantly keeping an armed force about him, as alarming and inflaming the people, who did not intend to disturb any person whatever. They assured him the New Englanders never meant to come into the county to take him or any of his family into captivity ; and they asked him to disperse his troops, which would satisfy the people. They suggested that the stopping and searching of travelers on the King's highway -which every man had a right to use unmolested-which had been done frequently, they thought could not have been countenanced by him ; and added : " This committee-and every member particularly for himself-assures you, that we have not, nor hath any one of us to our knowledge, ever spoken or made use of any unbecoming or malevolent language of you or any of your family."
Edward Wall, Peter Wagner, Nicholas Herkimer, Adam Fonda and Frederick Fox, were a committee to convey this letter to Col. G. Johnson, obtain his answer to it, and request his approbation to have a sub-committee to attend him at a congress he was about to hold with the Indians in the valley above.
It was resolved at this meeting to defray the expense incurred by the committee delegated to Albany-May 24, £12 ($30)-and also that the Canajoharie and Palatine districts- which were the central ones-should each employ a suitable man to be constantly ready to attend those committees as express messengers. News was then heralded by active men on foot or on horseback. The expense was to be a common charge to all the districts. This meeting adjourned to meet the next morning at precisely 8 o'clock.
The Eighth Meeting, the adjourned one, took place on Saturday, June 3, 1775.
Messrs. Herkimer and Wall reported that they had waited upon Col. Johnson with the letter of yesterday, who assured them he would have his answer ready on Monday, the 25th inst. Nicholas Herkimer, Augustinus Hess and William Petry were a designated committee to wait on Col. Johnson for his answer, which, after their perusal they were to transmit to the chairman. It was also ordered that the three persons named should, be a committee to attend the congress with the Indians, procuring some able person as an interpreter, and report in writing to the chairman. It was unanimously resolved, that the subscribers to the association should organize themselves into military companies, and appoint proper officers ; and that the committees of each district carry the resolution into effect with the greatest expedition, and report proceedings to the next meeting of this body.
The Ninth, a County Committee Meeting, was held on Sunday, June 11, 1775, at the house of Gose (Gosen or Goshen) Van Alstine, at or near the present village of Canajoharie; and consisted of 27 delegates-10 from Palatine, 7 from Mohawk, 5 from Canajoharie, and 5 from Kingsland and German Flats Districts.
The first action of this meeting, which in substance I have already stated was, in compliance of the wishes of the Provincial Congress, to send delegates to represent Tryon county in that body ; who designated their chairman, Christopher P. Yates and John Marlatt for that important duty.
This meeting recommended the appointment of sub-committees in each district to make perfect lists of all the free-holders and inhabitants of their respective districts. That the general association be tendered to such as have not signed it, that lists of those refusing to sign may be returned to this committee by the 1st of July ; the same to be transmitted to the Provincial Congress July 15.
Nicholas Herkimer was appointed chairman pro tempore, and took the chair. It was resolved, that before the next meeting, ways and means be devised to defray their expenses : when the meeting adjourned to meet on the first day of July, at the house of Gose Van Alstine.
The Tenth Meeting was one of the freeholders of the Canajoharie District, at the house of Wm. Seeber, on Thursday June 15, 1775, Nicholas Herkimer, chairman. It was a meeting to organize militia companies and choose officers for them; agreeable to resolutions of the Provincial Congress.
The Eleventh Meeting was one of the freeholders of the Palatine district, convened at the house of Jacob Clock, on Friday, June 16, 1T75, with Nicholas Herkimer, chairman, and John Eisenlord, clerk. The objects of this meeting were similar to those of the Canajoharie district the day before.
The Twelfth Meeting, for the Kingsland and German Flats districts, was held on Saturday, June 17, 1775, at the house of Frederick Fox, in the former district ; Nicholas Herkimer, chairman, and John Eisenlord, clerk. A large number of the committee of the districts were present.
The associated freeholders were assembled in numbers, but their militia organization was postponed. At this meeting several prominent citizens who in the spring had with the grand jury signed the declaration of the Johnson or loyal party, appeared voluntarily and joined the whig association; and conspicuous among them were Rudolph Shoemaker, Jost Herkimer, Jr., and John Thompson ; who severally took an oath to support American liberty. All who signed the association at this time, were asked whether they had done so from either compulsion or fear-as they were in no danger in case of refusal-and each declared they had acted from their own free will. Committeeman Wall, of German Flats, for some good reason, was excused from further duties in his official capacity.
The Thirteenth Meeting was one of the county committee, held on Thursday, June 29, at the house of Frederick Bellinger, in German Flats district, with Nicholas Herkimur in the chair. It was an extraordinary meeting, called to meet the sachems of the Oneida and Tuscarora Indians who were there assembled; at which meeting were 2 delegates from the Schectada committee, and 4 from Albany. Mutual speeches were made, friendship and confidence with the two nations renewed, with a promise from the latter if possible, to bring the rest of the Six Nations to unite with them in measures of peace. These warriors expressed their hearty thanks for the kindness and generosity manifested toward them by the committee, and freeholders of the upper districts ; and recommended-"The gate of Fort Staxwix be shut, that nothing might pass or repass to the hurt of the country." The speech to the Indians at this time, was reported July 31, to the Provincial Congress, (see its Journal page 95.)
At this session, Marcus Ittig and William Cunningham, made affidavits concerning the malevolent insinuations made by Guy Johnson to the Indians, respecting the American cause. The Congress continued until July 2 when the Indians quietly departed for their castles. A county meeting appointed for July 1, was necessarily postponed to meet on the 3d, at Gose Van Alstine's.
The Fourteenth Meeting was an important one, in which all the districts were represented except Mohawk, and was held at Gose Van Alstine's, on Monday, July 3, 1775, Mr. Herkimer, chairman, and Mr. Eisenlord, clerk. One of its first records was this : " The petition of the settlers in N. Germantown, containing their forming themselves into a company of militia, under their chosen officers, was granted."
John Bliven, of the Mohawk committee, under dates of July 2d and 3d, sent letters to inform this board, that Abraham C. Cuyler, the Mayor of Albany, had left there clandestinely. He was believed a tory, and was ascending the Mohawk in a canoe-possibly with military stores, and on his way to Canada. He had passed the Palatine district, when this meeting sent Capt. George Herkimer with a sufficient force to examine his lading, and his person for treasonable papers. He was over-taken at Cosby's manor, but Capt. Herkimer returned and reported finding nothing contraband, and he was allowed to proceed to Montreal. It is presumed that if Cuyler had any tabooed papers, he knew how to conceal them.
The associated settlers at Fort Stanwix represented to this committee, their dangerous situation, being few in numbers and daily exposed to the invasion of the enemy ; on which account they desired a guard to be stationed at that fort, giving the advice of their neighbors the Oneidas : " That the gate at Fort Stanwix ought to be shut." It was resolved, to communicate this state of things above, to the committee at Schenectada, and suggest the sending of about 100 men there if judged expedient. It was also resolved, to report their proceedings through their member, Mr. Yates, to the Provincial Congress. A list of the names of persons in the districts except Mohawk, who had refused to sign the association, were also sent to Mr. Yates. The meeting adjourned to meet July 10th at the house of Jacob Clock, in Palatine district, to hold a congress with the Indians of the Canajoharie castle.
Under date of Warrenshorough, July 4, 1775, William Schuyler and James McMaster, two of the Mohawk district committee, residents of the now town of Florida, writing to John Marlatt, Esq., and John Bliven, clerk ; on the subject of signing the association compact, said : As to the people who have signed where I live, there is only one, to wit, John Snuke (Snook), and " those that have not signed who have been asked, are the Rev. John Stuart and Henry Hare." Stuart was minister for the Indians at Fort Hunter, and subsequently went to Canada. Hare also went there, and returning in the summer of 1779, as a spy, he was arrested in Florida, and hung at Canajoharie as elsewhere shown. They further stated that Abraham C. Cuyler, Mayor of Albany, was on his way to Oswego, under pretence of collecting accounts, with two loaded bateaux : they suspected he had military stores, and apprised John Frey, Esq., of their suspicions. Action was taken of the matter as shown, in the convention of the county committee.-Corres, of Prov. Cong. v. 2., p. 61.
It seems necessary to mention some matters transpiring, that are not in this journal. The reader will remember that at the seventh meeting of the Try on county committee, when all the delegates were together, an important letter was sent to Guy Johnson, June 2d, who agreed to answer it on the 5th, which was not recorded in the journal. Col. Stone found and published it.* In this letter which was dated at " Thompson's, Cosby's Manor, June 5, 1775," while alluding to his own sentiments and those of the committee, he said :
" I must, as a true friend to the country in which I have large interest, say, that the present dispute is viewed in different lights according to the education and principles of the parties affected : and that, however reasonable it may appear to a considerable number of honest men here, that the petition of the delegates should merit attention, it is not viewed in the same light in a country which admits no authority that is not constitutionally established ; and I persuade myself you have that reverence for his Majesty, that you will pay due regard to the royal assurance given in his speech to parliament, that whenever the American grievances should be laid before him
* Life of Bryant, vol. 1., p. 74.
by their constitutional assemblies, they should be fully attended to. I have heard that compulsory steps were taken to induce some persons to come into your measures, and treasonable toasts drank ; but I am not willing to give too easy credit to flying reports, and am happy to hear you disavow them."
The reader will perceive, that, although apparently honest with himself, with regard to the difference of opinion then agitating the country, his views would not stand the test of scrutiny ; since it was then well known that the King of England manifested no willingness to redress American grievances. It seems quite reasonable to most intelligent readers, that with his large landed estate, he would hardly have taken the chances of forfeiture he did, had he not been an officer under liberal pay from the British government, with an expected and possibly promised remuneration for losses he might sustain, in his adherence to that government. In his letter he expressed his pleasure to find his call for a congress of the Indians on the borders gave satisfaction ; but the assembling of them in numbers was a failure from design or otherwise ; for at about that time he removed with his retinue to Oswego. He further said:
"The office I hold is greatly for the benefit and protection of this country, and on my frequent meetings with the Indians depends their peace and security ; I cannot therefore but be astonished to find the endeavors made use of to obstruct me in my duties, and the weakness of some people in withholding many things from me, which are indispensably necessary for rendering the Indians contented ; and I am willing to hope that you, gentlemen, will duly consider this and discountenance the same."
It is true, "the office he held was for the benefit and protection of this country," just so long as he exerted his influence to keep the Indians in check, and himself in a neutral position, or one not unfriendly to the colonies ; and had the Indians not been made to believe mainly through his influence and that of Sir John Johnson, that the British government was better able to pay them for their neutrality or services in the war than were the Americans, and they had been kept out of it ; they would never have forfeited their possessions here : and it is no less obvious, that had the Johnson family sided with their struggling neighbors for English citizenship, we should never have recorded the bloody scenes of Oriskany, the gory massacres of Wyoming and Cherry Valley, or the cruel destruction of the Indian towns in Western New York.
Col. Johnson's letter also said to the committee :
" You have been misinformed as to the origin of the reports which obliged me to fortify my house and stand on my defense. I had it, gentlemen, from undoubted authority from Albany, and since confirmed by letters from one of the committee at Philadelphia, that a large body of men were to make me prisoner. As the effect this must have on the Indians might have been of dangerous consequences to you (a circumstance not thought of), I was obliged, at great expense, to take these measures. But the many reports of my stopping travelers were false in every particular, and the only instance of detaining anybody was in the case of two New England men, which I explained fully to those of your body who brought your letter, and wherein I acted strictly agreeable to law, and as a magistrate should have done.
" I am very sorry that such idle and injurious reports meet with any encouragement. I rely on you, gentlemen, to exert yourselves in discountenancing them ; and I am happy in this opportunity of assuring the people of a country I regard, that they have nothing to apprehend from my endeavors, but that I shall always be glad to promote their true interests."
Whether there was any just cause for his apprehension about being arrested-which induced him to fortify Guy Park, and gather a large force about him-cannot be known with certainty ; but his actions were carefully watched, and that he felt his position a critical one, from the fact that most of the leading men in the county-if not arrayed against him, certainly were in sympathy with a cause he disapproved, cannot be doubted. The Indians would not, as he hinted, have been " dangerous " to the whites, unless they became so by his direction. The nature of his home fortifications is now unknown, but possibly the house was palisaded ; as so large a body as 400 or 500 retainers, many of them must have been domiciled in tents. He said he was at great expense to make those preparations. There can be no doubt that, after the battle of Bunker Hill, he did feel an increasing hazard in his position. He might well have added to the closing sentence of his letter, where those " true interests" do not clash with my own, or those of my chosen friends.
The Fifteenth Meeting of the committee was at Jacob Clock's in Palatine district, on Monday, July 10, 1775, Herkimer, chairman, and Eisenlord, clerk. The Mohawks were there as previously arranged, to consider the encompassing difficulties. Mrs. Peggy Johnson, the wife of Kariachyako Johnson, an Indian of the Canajoharie castle, acted as interpreter on the occasion. They answered an address from the committee in a long speech, assuring the meeting of their friendship, with a promise to remain entirely neutral in the controversy with the mother country. The freeholders of the two districts represented-Canajoharie and Palatine-were very generous in presents to the Indians, in flour, peas, corn, bread, pork and money, for which they expressed their hearty thanks. The meeting was adjourned over to the next day, when the sachems made another speech, renewing their assurances of peace and brotherhood as on the preceding day ; and with mutual assurances of future good will the parties separated. Speeches made on such occasions were not entered in the general minutes.
I deem it important to show the reader the proceedings of the Tryon county committee, that he may not only know what difficulties they had to encounter, but also what pains were taken on the part of the whites to keep faith with the Indians in their neighborhood-the Mohawks were all in Tryon county and, if possible keep them in a neutral position.
The Sixteenth Meeting again brought the Palatine and Canajoharie districts, on Thursday, July 13, 1775, to the house of Gose Van Alstine, the chairman, Christopher P. Yates, presiding. The first business of the meeting was to subscribe a mutual oath of secresy, which was kept outside the journal. A long letter was next ordered to be sent to the committees of Schenectada and Albany, the burden of which was, a rumor that Col. Johnson was ready with 800 or 900 Indians to invade the county, under command of Joseph Brant and Walter Butler; who were expected to fall on the inhabitants below Little Falls, in order to divide the people. Capt. Jacob Clock of the Palatine committee, also reported that on the morning of that day (July 13), an hour before day, three Indians had called at his house on their way home from Oswego to Fort Hunter, and that he learned they each had a bag of powder on their horses: at the end of an hour they resumed their journey. Apprehending an invasion of the valley, they sent a scout, if possible, to learn the route by which the invaders would approach. Say the committee : " Our ammunition is so scant that we cannot furnish 300 men so as to be able to make a stand against an equal number." They said, in their letter, " this condition of things, is the more alarming to us, as we shall be obliged in a few day's to begin with our harvests." At the close of that day's proceedings, the meeting adjourned to meet the next day at the house of William Seeber, Canajoharie district.
The Seventeenth Meeting convened at Seeber's, July 14, 1775, with Yates and Herkimer presiding. Ebenezer Cox, as appears by reference to an "order page," kept elsewhere, was given command of the military companies of Palatine and Canajoharie. Directions were to be sent from this meeting to the members of the committee at Cherry Valley and adjacent places, concerning the Indian alarm. Few minutes were recorded at this meeting, when it adjourned to meet the day following, at Warner Tygert's at Fall Hill.
The Eighteenth Meeting was held July 15, 1775, at the house of Warner Tygert : Yates and Herkimer in the chair. After receiving several unimportant depositions, a letter was ordered sent to the Provincial Congress, recommending for appointment the names of Christopher P. Yates, as Captain, and Andrew Fink, Jr., and John Keyser, Jr., as First and Second Lieutenants of a company which Mr. Yates was enlisting ; and under date of 21st October following, as the fourth company of Col. Goose Van Schaick's regiment of New York troops, we find their appointment confirmed.* At this meeting answers were received to the letters they had previously sent to Schenectada and Albany, and 150 pounds of powder at £25 ($62.50) per cwt. From Schenectada came 300 pounds of lead at 40s. ($5) per cwt. Ebenezer Cox also reported his doings with the militia under his command, and the meeting adjourned to meet the next day at the same place.
The Nineteenth Meeting met agreeable to adjournment, July
* Jour. Prov. Congress, vol. 2, p. 97.
16th. At this meeting John Eisenlord reported his action with a scouting party under his command. It was ordered that John Petry be sent to Albany under a guard, with a letter narrating his misconduct, after which the meeting adjourned.
The Twentieth Meeting, consisting of eight delegates each from 'the Palatine and Canajoharie districts, which only were represented, met August 12, 1775, at the house of William Seeber. The first action of the meeting was to order notices put up in the most public places from Garoga creek to N. Germantown-included within the Palatine district-to elect two new members for said district, on Friday, August 18th, at the house of Charles Gordon, near the Canada creek. A letter was sent from this assembly to the Provincial Congress, asking for instruction not only in military matters, but in those of a civil character, to enable them to proceed judiciously in the management of transgressors of their regulations ; and how, wisely, to defray the necessary expenses of their own mission in the county.
Joseph Meby was arraigned before this meeting, charged with having attempted to instigate the Indians to rescue Capt. John Petry from his escort, he having been sent to Albany by a previous meeting for misconduct. He begged to be excused for this, his first fault, promised his future good behavior, and was finally set at liberty. The meeting adjourned to Friday, August 25th, to meet at the house of Gose Van Alstine, the clerk being instructed to notify all the districts for attendance.
The Twenty-first Meeting assembled August 25, 1775, at the house of Van Alstine, with Herkimer and Eisenlord in their places, as at the previous meeting. This was quite a full meeting, thirty delegates being present. The three new members chosen August 18th to represent a portion of the Palatine district, were Christian Nellis, William Fox, Jr., and John Js. Clock, who took the oath prescribed to the previous members. The proceedings of this meeting, with its adjourned one, cover more pages in the journal than do those of any other single meeting. The first subject for its consideration was a matter which happened in the Mohawk district June 25th, between John Fonda, a prominent whig, then residing near the present site of the Fonda court house, and Thomas Hunt, a servant of Sheriff Alexander White, who was a violent Tory As was proven by the testimony of John Kinton, and of Fonda himself, said Hunt attempted to cross the land of Fonda, over a meadow and ground sowed with peas, when the latter ordered him off, telling him to take the path beside the fence. He refused to do so, uttering very abusive language ; and they met. Hunt had a brush scythe* upon his shoulder, and Fonda, who had been hoeing corn, was armed with his hoe. Seeing his antagonist raise the scythe to strike him, Fonda knocked him down with his hoe. On regaining his feet in the midst of his vile epithets, he threatened that he would be the death of Fonda, who left him there and went home. For this occurrence, Sheriff White caused Fonda to be arrested and lodged in the county jail. This meeting does not appear to have taken action in this matter.
The Twenty-second Meeting was the adjourned one of the day before, convened on Saturday, August 26, at the same place and with the same members.
Its first business was to pass a series of resolutions embodying their duties. The first resolution provided for the punishment of disobedient soldiers, until a militia act was furnished by the Provincial Congress.
The Second related to " disputes and misdemeanors in civil matters," arising among the inhabitants. They were to be decided by three members of the committee of the district in which the offence existed : unless the members were too far separated, when one committee-man and 6 jurymen-free-holders-were to decide all cases involving less than £5 New York currency.
The third provided that damages, costs, etc., should be recovered as specified in the first resolution-by the distressing of goods and chattels.
The fourth specified that the officers chosen for the militia companies, should be confirmed in their appointments and obeyed in their positions.
The fifth required constables to observe the orders of the committee.
The sixth and seventh said that the officers chosen at the first meeting of N. Germantown* for a militia company of that precinct, should be established as the right ones, confirming the following : John Eisenlord, captain ; John Keyser, 1st lieutenant; Adam Bellinger, 2d lieutenant; John Smith, ensign.
* An Instrument for cutting weeds and brush.
" The said company formed shall begin at Jacob Staring's including, and take in all the inhabitants from 16 to 50 years of age on the north side of the highroad to Conrad Rickert's, thence all the inhabitants of N. Germantown, of the ages above mentioned, and extend so far as Sir William Johnson's settlement, until the company amounts to 60 men, the sergeants and corporals included."
* At this period there were two local settlements called N. Germantown, one was In the present town of Schuyler; 'the other was farther northeast and embraced the settlement known as Reme Snyder's Bush, back of Little Falls: and strange as It may seemseem was Included In the Palatine district. This militia company "was evidently organized near East Canada creek in Manheim, extending Into the Royal Grant. A. long communication dated " Canajoharie district, December 21,1776," signed Nicholas Herkimer, Brig. Gen., Ebenezer Cox and Jacob Klock; Colonels, and sent to the Provincial Congress of New York, enables me to deduce the following: John Keyser of N. Germantown, in this letter is called captain of this company, Instead of Eisenlord. John Reme Snyder, a son of Henry Reme Snyder, had been appointed a corporal of this company; but his father's ambition had coveted an ensign's commission for him, and would not allow him to do military duty Interposing the plea that he was a miller, and the law exempted him from service. The father had been the miller, but being exempt by law from duty, as over 60, he determined both should be exempted. The letter represented the mill as rickety, the stream of water small and not much to grind; and viewing the scheme of the father as improper, the captain imposed a fine on the son, for which on his refusing to pay, he distrained him. The father threatened to kill any man who came on his premises, on which account a sergeant went with a party and arrested John. At this stage of the proceeding, the father applied to the county committee, which, without Investigation, ordered the son set at liberty under the law exempting millers from service.
As the father was a robust man and generally did the milling when any was to be done, It caused him to look a little toryfied, or as standing in the way of giving the frontier a needed soldier; on which account the appeal was made to the State authority to sustain the action of Capt. Keyser, and annul the action of the county committee. They feared this action might Induce others of the company to refuse to train if young Snyder was excused, and added: "We, the superior officers, who are resolved and willing to serve our country in our contest faithfully, and to have the militia under our command ruled Impartially, find ourselves aggrieved, and beg that your Honorable board would look Into the case maturely, and procure that justice may be done to the officers, as well as to the privates. We do not doubt that In particular the proceedings of the said Capt. Keyser will be approved to be just and lawful; and therefore, the above mentioned resolve of the committee recalled." This matter was presented a second time to the State council, January 14, 1777, and was called up in that body February 6, when it was resolved In the absence of the Tryon county committee's proceedings, to transmit the matter to that committee for explanation. As no further action is shown in either volume of the Provincial Congress upon this theme, it is to be presumed that the matter was compromised in Tryon county: possible John Snyder became patriotic, and discharged his military duty.-See Journal of New York Provincial Congress.
The eighth, resolution said : " The following persons are nominated by the majority of votes, as field officers for such respective districts, viz :"
Colonel Nicholas Herkimer,
Lieut.-Col. Ebenezer Cox,
Major Robert Wells,
Adj't Samuel Clyde.
Col. Jacob Clock,
Lieut.-Col. Peter Waggoner.
Major Harm". Van Slyck,
Adj't Anthony Van Vechten.
Col. Frederick Visscher,
Lieut.-Col. Adam Fonda,
Major John Bliven,
Adj't Robert Yates.
KINGSLAND AND GERMAN FLATTS.
Col Hanyoost Herkimer,
Lieut.-Col. Peter Bellinger,
Major Hanyoost Shoemaker.
Adj't John Demooth.
" By the majority of another voting of this committee,
Col. Nicholas Herkimer is appointed
" CHIEF COLONEL AND COMMANDER FOR THE COUNTY OF TRYON."
It was farther resolved that the committee of each district shall nominate its own path-masters, to make and keep in repair the high-roads. Also, " that a memorial be sent to Major-Gen. Schuyler at Ticonderoga, for a couple of companies of militia under his command, to secure our exposed frontier."
Next are recorded sundry affidavits " concerning the threatenings of Alexander White, late sheriff of our county." Major Jelles Fonda, who resided below Caughnawaga, testified that he heard Sheriff White often say that he would fight for the King with the party on the King's side, and swore they would be sure to conquer. He said those on the country's side were fighting with halters about their necks. He had heard him many times declare " that he hoped to have the pleasure of hanging a good many yet, for their resistance against the acts of Parliament." John Vedder, who resided at the upper end of the village of Fonda, said he had often heard the sheriff say : " The King's people fight for glory ; but those for the country fight with halters on their necks." He also told him an army was coming down from Canada, and they would pick out the houses-meaning for destruction. William Wallace, of Johnstown, testified that Sheriff White, one day at John Veeder's, said publicly ; "The estates of the country here are all forfeited, especially pointing upon [those of] Adam Fonda and Sampson Sammons ; the people will be hanged." William Seeber, who, as I have shown, resided above Fort Plain, made an affidavit which gives a truthful picture of frontier life at that period.
" William Seeber, of Canajoharie, under oath saith, that on a certain day in the beginning of May last, about 9 o'clock in the night, came William Johnson, the Indian (another Indian), and Sheriff White, into deponent's house, called for liquor ; and the sheriff immediately inquired for the answer upon a letter, which the deponent received of Col. Claus that same day, and insisted upon that answer till the next morning : and further said, with many curses, that if he had been here the day of signing the association, he would have shot some of 'em through their hearts, and the rest he would have carried away to the westward to be hanged there, upon which the deponent's son, Jacob Seeber, did reply, that it was not so easy a matter to do that; whereupon the sheriff got his pistol, cocked it, and presented it to the breast of said Jacob, saying, 'you d-d rebel, if you say one word more I'll blow your brains out !' and the Indians had swords and knives in their hands, but, notwithstanding, there was hurt done, as said Jacob made himself out of their sight."
Anthony Van Vechten, of Palatine, testified that when he was at Johnson Hall last, to get the sheriff, " the said sheriff did, with many extraordinary curses, declare to the deponent that he'll have to hang a good many of this county before long."
This was July 21st.
William Petry, another of the committee, testified that, being at Johnstown, in search of a runaway servant, Sheriff White stopped him in the street ; told him he must go to jail. Petry demanded by what process ; but, refusing to show any, he lodged him in jail. The next day the sheriff wrote a recognizance of £60 penalty ; but this Petry refused to sign, and some hours after the jail-keeper ordered the prisoner out of the jail without any bail or recognizance, and he returned home.
Thus we see that Sheriff White had become very obnoxious to the whigs of Tryon county.
At this meeting witnesses also testified to the malevolent tory proclivities of other citizens of the valley. Anthony Van Vechten against Peter Bowen, Major Fonda and Lodowick Putman against Lewis Clement, who resided below the village of Fonda. Putman stated " that on Monday, July 24, in the night, he met Clement with four Indians, one squaw and an Indian boy, going toward the Sacondaga, as a convoy of Sheriff White, who cursed and swore, saying to deponent, is it not a pity that I, being a man of good estate, must go and leave the same for the sake of these d-d Fondas ? but I shall soon make up a good number of Indians, and return with them to destroy and ruin such people all about here ; but you (Putman) have nothing to fear, because you abide in a safe place, which (being near Johnstown) shall not be hurted." Whether this threat was from White or Clement is not certain ; but the latter, who first went away with Guy Johnson, did return with the enemy, Putman was killed by the Indians under Sir John Johnson in May, 1780. The meeting again adjourned to the next day.
The Twenty-third Meeting was held Sunday, August 27, 1775, at the house of Gose Van Alstine ; same members present as on the day before. At this meeting Christian House, Charles Gordon, Roger and Thomas Baxter, were testified against by David Cox, a committeeman; Uriel Comes, a constable, and Jacob Jas, Clock, as dangerous and offending persons to the country's cause, but they were to be pardoned for past offenses if they would reform their conduct; but, if not, they were to be sent to the Albany committee for treatment. Not accepting the easy terms, the quartette were bound over in the sum of $100 for their appearance and trial at Albany. This closed the business of the long three days' session. As the same 30 members are reported there each day, we suppose but few of them could have gone home nights as those homes were widely separated.
The Flight of Sheriff White*-As shown by the affidavit of of Mr. Putman, he left Johnstown to go toward the Sacondaga, on Monday night, July 24, under an escort of genial spirits. The day following, Sir John Johnson wrote to him as follows;
" JOHNSON HALL, 26th August, 1775,
"Dear Sir-The bearer will deliver yon some provisions and clothes, and Mr. Clement will give you a paper containing a ten pound note, which I received from Mrs. White this morning. The Indians having desired some cash from me to expend when they come among the inhabitants in Canada-which I have not to give them-I must beg you to supply them, and charge it to Col. [Guy] Johnson. If you have forgot anything, and I can be of service to you, I beg you'll mention it. God bless you.
" (A true copy) JOHN BAY, Secretary."
White must have lingered with some tory friend about the Sacondaga for several days, as will be seen by this letter, dated the following Saturday :
"August 29, 1775.
"Dear Sir-After you went off yesterday, Mr. Stuart Fry and Doctor Adams went down to Fonda's and Veeder's, and acquainted the people with your departure out of the county. As soon as they were assured of it they dispersed all their men- to the amount of about 500-and sent expresses up and down the country to stop all that were coming to their assistance, as well as the cannon they had sent for to Schenectada ; and in the afternoon, some from the different committees came up to Fry's and informed me they would wait my pleasure there till eight in the night. I went accordingly, and was received in a very friendly manner. When I assured them you were gone, they seemed to be perfectly satisfied, but at the same time declared they would never suffer you to return ; and wanted me to promise that you never should. I told them I would not promise any such thing. They all desired to be restored to the same good understanding we used to be on, and declared they never would countenance any evil designs against me, or anything belonging to me, nor never did. Upon which we parted, seemingly good friends. I would not have you, upon any account whatever, to return now, as I assured them you would not. We have got Aaron and another Indian to go with you ; and you may depend upon their being with you on Tuesday afternoon [September 1st]. Major Fonda is desirous of being
* Corres. of Prov. Congress, vol. 2, 73.
reconciled to me, and I expect to see him tomorrow or nest,
day in town. The bearer is threatened so much that he determined to go with
yon; [probably Lewis Clement]. I have several things for you, which I will
send you by the Indian. God bless you, and send you safe to your journey's
end, is the sincere- wish of your friend-
"JOHNSON HALL, Sunday night, 11 o'clock.
"As your being at Harris' is known to too many, I would advise you to keep in the woods all day tomorrow, for fear of the worst.
" (A true copy) JOHN BAY, Secretary." *
The Twenty-fourth Meeting-a county meeting-was held on Thursday, September 7, 1775, at the house of Gose Van Alstine, which seems to have been found the most central place for their assemblage. Twenty-five members were present; Herkimer and Eisenlord in their official seats. The first action at this meeting is recorded as follows :
" WHEREAS, it is an unanimous complaint of all the freeholders and inhabitants in our county (only the tories excepted) against the scandalous, damaging and dangerous conduct of our late sheriff, Alexander White, as he has proved himself sufficiently unworthy of his office, and an enemy in general and in particular to our American cause : THEREFORE the county committee, at the expiration of his commission, thought necessary -for the satisfaction of the public, and in behalf of our constitution-to have a free voting for a new sheriff by the freeholders and inhabitants of our county."
The result of the election was, John Frey, Esq., was elected; the vote standing 89 for him, against 45 for three other candidates. These electoral proceedings were ordered sent to the, Provincial Congress for ratification.
This meeting next directed the committeemen of the Mohawk district, in which Lewis Clement and Peter Bowen, old offenders, resided, to arrest and keep them in custody until the general committee could meet and pass upon the merits of their cases. At this meeting it was resolved that John Eisenlord.
* Corres. Prov. Congress, VOL. 2, p, 73.
should bear an order on the Albany committee for 400 or 500 weight of powder and lead in proportion ; the same to be placed in the care of Daniel McDougal until ordered by the Colonels to their respective districts ; the same to be distributed pro rata to the companies under arms.
Crownidge Kinkead, John Collins and Marte J. Van Alstine signed the association compact at this meeting, when it adjourned over to the next morning.
The Twenty-fifth Meeting assembled on Friday, September 8th, 1775, at the same place, and with the same members present as the day before. At this meeting it was unanimously resolved, that henceforth every member of the board, when legally notified of a meeting, should be there or be fined twenty shillings-unless they could assign a sufficient reason for their absence- said fines to go to defray public expenses ; the Kingsland, German Flats and Mohawk districts being allowed to send a majority of their delegates. When assembled, they were not to leave without permission from the chairman, or the whole meeting, under a like penalty. To these obligations the members present, 38 in number, subscribed their names, except four. Three of these, Conrad Rickert, William Fox, Jr., and Frederick Ahrendorf, made their mark, and Peter Waggoner placed P. W. in capital letters in the place of his name. Few were the advantages had by these delegates at English schools when they were boys, and yet it is possible they could all have written their names in German ; but this was a body of men remarkable for general intelligence, patriotic motives, and energetic notion, knowing, as their tory neighbors in their arrogance said, they were acting with halters about their necks They certainly -were surrounded by wily and vigilant foes.
At this meeting four members who had not before done so, now took the committee oath, viz.: George Herkimer and John Frank, of Kingsland ; Frederick Helmer, of German Flats; and Conrad Pickert, of Canajoharie district. This meeting also referred the disturbances of Gordon and Baxter to the Albany committee for adjustment.
The Twenty-sixth Meeting was a county meeting called by the request of its Provincial delegate, John Marlatt, Esq., on Wednesday, September 13, 1775, at the house of Gose Van Alstine ; Herkimer, chairman, and Eisenlord, clerk; there being 36 delegates present. John Demooth, of Kingsland, took the committee oath at this time. At this meeting appeared the Sachem Abraham, of Fort Hunter, with two warriors of the same castle, and made a long speech, interpreted by -- Quackinbush, in which he desired to convince that assembly, that the sachems and most of the warriors were ignorant of, or had not consented to, the guiding by Lewis Clement and Peter Bowen, of Sheriff White to Canada. And they promised in future if any enemies of the American cause wanted their assistance again, it should not be rendered ; but, on the contrary, they would seize such persons and deliver them to the committee. They again promised to keep inviolable the covenant made in Albany some time before. These Indians were evidently insincere, as they all, with an exception or two, went off to Canada subsequently. This, with two exceptions, seems to have been the last friendly talk with the representatives of the Mohawk nation. The committee replied accepting their friendly assurances, and promised reciprocal action.
At this time Capt. Stevenson was ascending the Mohawk in a boat, on his way to Canada, and his motives being suspected he was sent back by this committee, to the Schenectada committee to be dealt with, unattended, his honor being the pledge of performance. Thus we see that the entire Mohawk river as a thoroughfare, was under the espionage of this eagle-eyed committee.
John Bowen,* and Lewis Clement, who had accompanied Sheriff White in his night toward Canada, had the temerity to return to their old homes, defying their proscription. Their names were in bad odor among the whigs before this event, and they were now arrested and brought before the committee for disposal. They were adjudged each to pay a fine of £25- New York currency, within two months-secured by bonds- or be closely confined in the Albany jail for three months at their own costs. They refused to pay a single copper, and elected to go to jail. They were sent to Albany, because at this period Sir John Johnson would not allow the Whigs to use the Johnstown jail, claiming its ownership as an inheritance from his father. He certainly did not will him the jail or
* This name is written Bown in these records, but revolutionary men called him Bowen, and I so write It.
courthouse, both of which he claimed jurisdiction over, to obstruct the Whigs in their action. As we have elsewhere shown, the county owned those buildings. They were sent under a guard of three constables with a mittimus, to Mr. William Pemberton, keeper of the Albany jail ; bearing also a letter to the Albany committee concerning the, trial.
At this meeting John Marlatt, Esq., a delegate from the county to the Provincial Congress, presented his account for 87 days service at 12s. per day, $130.50. John Moore of the Canajoharie district was at this meeting appointed the successor of Mr. Marlatt. It was thought one member would be sufficient to represent their small county, (meaning in population,) the expense of two being burdensome ; which was to be submitted to the Provincial Congress. David Cox, a member of Canajoharie district desired his discharge from the responsible position, which was granted and the meeting adjourned to October 26, to meet at the same place, unless sooner assembled by unlooked for events.
The Twenty-seventh Meeting, the county committee convened October 26, 17'7o, at the house of Gose Van Alstine : Herkimer and Eisenlord in their positions. Although such a stringent resolution had been passed at the meeting of September 8th, imposing a fine on delinquent members, only 22 were present, and they imposed the penalty on an equal number of absentees. Only two delegates were noted absent for Palatine, while 12 were present; Mohawk had 5 present and 5 absent, viz.: Abram Van Home, Visscher, Yates, Sammons and Schuyler; Canajoharie had 5 present and 3 absent, viz.: the two Pickerts and Heintz ; German Flatts had 1 present and 5 absent; and Kingsland had none present and 7 absent. Of the 38 members who signed the resolution imposing a penalty, 15 were now among the absentees, besides whom were 7 who had not signed it, viz.: Abram Yates, Ittig, Frederick Fox, John Pickerts, Heintz, William Petry, and Demooth, John Moore having been made a delegate to the Provincial Convention, was not there nor was he fined. At this meeting it was resolved to accept two newly chosen delegates for Palatine, Charles Gordon and Lawrence Zimmerman.
It was unanimously " Resolved, that three members of the committee shall be sent to Sir John Johnson, to ask him whether he will allow his inhabitants of Johnstown and Kingsborough, to form themselves into companies according to the regulations of our Provincial Congress, for the defense of our country's cause : and whether he would be ready himself to give his personal assistance to the same purpose, and whether he pretends a prerogative to our county court house and jail, and would hinder or interrupt the committee, to make use of the same public houses to our want and service in the common cause." Ebenezer Cox, James McMaster, and John Jas. Clock were appointed for this service.
Capt. Jacob Seeber, of Canajoharie district, was by this meeting authorized to bring several disobedient privates in his company to their duty by fines in accordance with provision made by the Provincial Congress. Like authority was the next day given to Capt. French, of Warrensborough : Capt. Samuel Clyde, of Cherry Valley, and Capt. John Eisenlord, of N. Germantown. It was also at this meeting, agreed that the pay of the delegate to the Provincial Congress thereafter, should be eight shillings New York currency, and no more. The meeting adjourned to the next day.
The Twenty-eighth Meeting, October 21, at the same house with the same members present as the day before, At this meeting it was " resolved, to send a letter to the Sachems of the Canajoharie castle, to inquire in regard to the return and present abiding of some Indians in their castle from Canada, who have acted inimically against us, and fought against our united forces near the Fort St. Johns, not to give shelter to such real enemies among 'em."
The delegation to Sir John Johnson, brought back the following verbal answers to the questions of the day before:
" 1st. By perusing our letter Sir John replied, that he thinks our requests very unreasonable, as he never had denied the use either of the courthouse or jail to any body, nor would he deny it for the use which these houses have been built for, but he looks upon it that the courthouse and jail are his property, till he is paid £700, which he is out of pocket for building the same.
" 2d. In regard to embodying his tenants into companies, he never did forbid them, neither should do it, as they may use their pleasure ; but -we might save ourselves the trouble, he being sure they would not.
" 3d. Concerning himself, he said, that before he would sign any association, or would lift up his hand against his King, he would rather Buffer his head to be cut off. And further he replied that if we should make any unlawful use of the gaol, he would oppose it. Also he mentions that there have many unfair measures been used for signing the association and uniting the people, for he was informed by credible gentlemen in New York, that they were obliged to unite, otherwise they could not live there ; and that he was also informed by good authority, that likewise two thirds of the Canajoharie and German Flatts people have been forced to sign-and by his opinion the Boston people are open rebels, and the colonies have joined them."
The prisoners, Clement and Bowen, who were sent to Albany to be jailed, the Albany committee remanded back to Tryon county ; and now this meeting resolved, to send them to the county jail in Johnstown, to find out whether Sir John Johnson should adjudge this use of the jail unlawful, and will oppose the same. Capt. Jacob Seeber with a party of eight men was to convey them thither; and in case the jailor would not receive them into his custody and close confinement for the time of sentence ; or Sir John opposed the act, the prisoners were to be brought back and left with the new sheriff, John Frey, Esq.
A Special Meeting at the house of William Seeber.
For some reason probably for the better accommodation of the Mohawks remaining at the Canajoharie castle-with whom they wished to treat-part of this convention adjourned the same day (October 27) to the house of William Seeber, four miles westward of Van Alstine's and some ten miles eastward of the castle. Members present: Nicholas Herkimer, chairman, John Eisenlord, clerk. William Seeber, Jacob Clock, John Frey, Harmanus Van Slyck, Christian Nellis, John Jas. Clock, and Duncan McDougal.
In answer to the letter sent to the Indians of this castle ; their Sachems and warriors appeared and spoke in substance as follows :
"Brothers, we are thankful that you open your hearts, and we comprehend to be true what you told us. We live together, gentlemen, and we shall endeavor to answer you upon all the contents of your letter as much as we remember. We have not yet forgotten our agreement made in Albany. Although not in writing it is yet in our memory. We can remember very well that there have been twelve governors with whom we agreed, and we made a level road from the Six Nations, to Boston and Philadelphia."
They said that they with others of the Six Nations had helped to make this road, and had been very glad for the making of it, but they added : " We are afraid you make the first disturbance on the seaside, because you are fighting already. They have made that good road, but they will not hope that we should spill blood upon it."
"You say in your letter that you cannot keep your young people back, but we think you can order them. Some of our young people are now in Canada, and perhaps they are killed there, but if so our hearts will not be sore about it. There are some young people whom we could not persuade to stay, and not meddle with the fighting of the white people, but some went away and we are glad to see them back again, because they have been debauched to go away"
" Brothers, the Six Nations are now speaking about that good road and be glad ; but if they-should soon pass that road and see blood upon it, they would be surprised.
" Brothers, we have made a very strong agreement of friendship together, and we beg you will not break it for sake of some wrong done by some who have been debauched ; you will drop it, we hope, at present."
Answer to the Indians.-The committee replied to them; " That if their young people, who have first spilled blood of our brothers are come back, and they should repeat the same, such a one should have come to us, and shewed to us that he was sorry for what had passed, and make promises not to do so in future, but the questioned William Johnson did not do that as yet, on the contrary he bragged of his hostile proceedings; and speaks very boldly against our cause."
The Twenty ninth Meeting of the committee, a county meeting was held on Monday, November 6, 1775, at the house of Gose Van Alstine, chairman Herkimer being absent from sickness, the chair was filled by Lieut. Col. Ebenezer Cox, -with John Eisenlord, clerk.
Agreeable to a resolution of the Provincial Congress, this day was fixed upon for the election of delegates in the several counties of the colony, to that body. In accordance two delegates were chosen, viz.; John Moore, of Canajoharie, rechosen, and Isaac Paris of Palatine. In case Mr. Paris declined to serve, Sampson Sammons, as the highest competing candidate was to be considered chosen.
Powder.-Of the 150 pounds ordered from the Albany committee before, brought by Frederick Visscher for the county's supply ; three of the six 25 pound kegs were kept in the Mohawk district, two by Chris. P. Yates, of Palatine, and one by John Moore, of Canajoharie.
The principal Sachems of the Fort Hunter Mohawks, applied to the committee through John Marlatt, Esq., for the discharge from custody of Bowen and Clement ;* whereupon John Frey, Esq., moved, that if the request was granted, it should be solely on account of the Mohawk Indians : "And in case the said Mohawks would bring the said Bowen and Clement before us, and they then will acknowledge their faults, also promise to behave themselves brotherlike to the best of our country's cause, and do no more against it, then we will forgive and discharge them in full." The motion was adopted, the committee leaving no stone unturned to keep the Indians in a state of neutrality.
The committee having learned that Col. Butler, with several other former residents were returning in a bateau to the valley, it was ordered that a guard of 15 men should be kept at the house of John Frank in Kingsland district, and a similar guard at the Little Falls carrying place, to stop and arrest returning enemies, and notify the chairman for further proceedings. It was also further ordered that a spy-guard of two or three men should be kept above the German Flatts, who, on the appearance of enemies, should return to the Flatts and inform the officer there of his discovery, or any other militia officer or committeeman he should chance to meet. This guard was to be furnished from the companies of Captains George Herkimer
* Col. Stone supposed these two men were Indians. (See note vol. 1, p. 110, Life of Brant. They were white men and dwelt between Fonda and Tribeshill.
and John Eisenlord. They were instructed to stop every suspicious looking person, whether traveling by land or water: and if Col. Butler should be taken, he was to be sent to the Provincial Congress.
As Mr. Van Alstine, at whose house the meeting was held, was out and in the room frequently, it was thought best to administer the oath of secresy which the delegates had taken to him, and it was immediately done. After the disposal of some other matters, the meeting adjourned to the next day.
The Thirtieth Meeting was at the same place as the day before, and assembled on Tuesday, November 7, 1775.
At this meeting Col. Jacob Clock related the threatening language, uttered at his house in his absence, by William Johnson, an Indian foeman returned from Canada, on Monday night preceding. Said informant, he came there from Johnstown accoutred with a gun, two pistols and a broad-sword, exclaiming : "I am a King's man ! who dares say anything against it ? I have killed so many Yankees at St. Johns with this sword of my father [this was possibly a half-breed son and name-sake of Sir William Johnson, whose sword he boasted of having] ; they are no soldiers at all. I killed and scalped them, and kicked -- --, and the d-d committee here have gone too far already. I'll show them better, and will cut some of their heads off by and by. I only pity the wives and children, for I shall come with 500 men, which I have ready, to cut off the whole river [settlements], and burn their houses yet this fall," " Besides," these he made other villainous charges, and said " that he was sorry he had not stopped at Philip Foxes, and that DD son of a b- McDougal-for he had beard by his people that he set up the Scotch people against them, [the tories]." These idle threats show the state of feeling that was fast culminating along the frontiers. It was thought best, however, to acquaint the managers of Indian affairs with this and similar boastings and threatenings.
It was moved by James McMaster that, as John Hare-the jail-keeper at Johnstown-Robert Picken and George Cock, opposed Capt. Jacob W. Seeber in the delivery of Peter Bowen as a prisoner there, and threatened to shoot him ; that the notorious three should be arrested and confined by the committee at some place they should designate. The motion was negatived, no doubt owing to fear of the influence at that locality of Sir John Johnson, but they had now tested his control over the building.
This meeting fixed some military bounds, by which the battalion of Col. Jacob Clock should extend no farther west than the house of Jacob Staring, on the west side of the Lower Canada creek in the Royal Grant exclusive, and the battalion of Col. Peter Bellinger was to begin and take its bounds from thence.
The German Flatts and Kingsland districts having repeatedly desired to have John Eisenlord act as a member of their committee, it was resolved that he should, in the future, be so considered.
Agreeable to a suggestion of Capt. Samuel Clyde, it was resolved that transient persons residing in the county for six weeks should be liable to bear arms, and should do so under any captain, whose jurisdiction they chanced to come under, subject to the requirements of the older inhabitants.
The Thirty-first Meeting of the county committee was held on Friday the 24th of November, 1775, at the house of Gose Van Alstine. As this meeting was quite a full one, there being 36 members present, and the last one entered in the journal before me I record their names. This journal is an unbound book consisting of 64 foolscap pages ; and I regret that I have not the minutes of the committee's proceedings from this record forward through the years 1776 and 1777, or as long as the meetings were kept up.
The reader will agree with the writer that thy journal minutes of the committee here transcribed, reflect much light on the vicissitudes which the patriots of the Mohawk valley had to contend with; augmented as they were four-fold by having the Indians in their midst, with their Superintendent, his relatives and followers entirely in the interest of the mother country.
MEMBERS PRESENT AT THE THIRTY-FIRST MEETING ; HERKIMER, CHAIRMAN,
Messrs. Volkert Veeder,
Abm. Van Horne,
Messrs. James McMaster,
Messrs. John Frey,
Harmanus Van Slyck,
Messrs Geroge Eckert, Jr.,*
John Js. Clock,
Messrs. Ebenezer Cox,
KINGSLAND AND GERMAN FLATTS.
Messrs. Augustinus Hess,
Michael Ittig (now Edick),
Jacob N. Weaver.
Two absentees were noted ; Wm. Fox, of Palatine ; Henry Heints, of Canajoharie.
Capt. Herkimer, at his post in Kingsland district, arrested four suspicious persons returning from Canada to the county, viz.: James Cameron, a Scotchman ; John Frek'l, of Kingsborough ; John Picken, of Johnstown, and George Crawford, of Butlersbury. They were brought before the committee and examined. Cameron, under oath, stated that coming lately from Scotland, and on his way to see his brother last May, he was stopped by Col. Guy Johnson at his house in the King's road, and persuaded to stay with him at three shillings per day ; also that he was taken along in that manner, and at the same pay as a bateauman, to Oswego by said Guy. From there he wanted to return back to this county, but was stopped by force and compelled by said Guy to do bateau service with him from thence to Montreal. There Guy Johnson and others besought him to enlist in the King's service, which he ever refused, but worked at Montreal for a citizen by the month ; and hearing of the return of Mr. John Robinson, a merchant of Schenectada, he endeavored to come back with him to Tryon county to get his livelihood, and agreed to work for him at three shillings per day, although he had an offer from Col. John Butler to go with him at four shillings a day ; but he disliked the company and engagement of Col. Johnson and his party. He further said he
* This name, now written Eacker, is sometimes written Eker, and at others Ekert, In these minutes.
was resolved never to take up arms against the country's cause, or in any way favor the country's enemies ; but would stand ready to defend American liberty, and obey the orders for its achievement. The committee acquitted him of misdemeanor, and granted him a pass to proceed on his way to Johnstown.
Fred, under oath, said that some time in May last, Col. Guy Johnson required him to go to Sir John Johnson's to do some tailor's work, he having business with the Indian's for about three weeks. As he must live by his trade, and had worked much for that family, he went along ; from thence said Guy persuaded him to go to Oswego, from which place he desired to go back, but was refused permission by said Guy ; was stopped by force and was threatened with a flogging, as were others, who insisted upon returning from Oswego. From there he was commanded to go in a bateau with Guy Johnson and his party to Montreal, where he was discharged. Johnson and others endeavored to engage him in the King's service, which he refused, and worked at his trade as a tailor in Montreal until he found an opportunity to return home in a bateau. He also declared under oath that he would never take up arms against American liberty's cause, but would show himself ever ready at any command to defend the said cause.
George Crawford declared on oath that Col. Butler employed him in some business, but desired him to see Col. Guy Johnson, who wanted to employ him in a more lucrative business than was that of school teaching. He replied that he did not like to lose his school. Butler said to him, as your school year has now expired, you might accept such service from Guy, being only for a few weeks ; when you might return and take your school again for another year. You should, added Butler, consider the difference of pay. Deponent then went to Col. Guy Johnson and engaged to assist him in holding a congress with the Indians at John Thompson's. Here this record ends, being evidently continued in another book. Whether those men all made satisfactory excuses for going to Canada can only be conjectured ; but these shreds of apologies for suspicious conduct, show not only the subterfuges of the Johnsons, or royal influence to keep men in their interest, but the ingenuity of their servile agents to shake off their entanglement. Whether the looted tories-Bowen and Clement-complied with the terms offered the Mohawks for their enlargement, is now unknown and the facts lost with what would, beyond a doubt, prove a budget of interesting reading in the missing link of this valuable journal. The two tories named both ever lived and died as such.
John Fonda and Sheriff White.-I have shown that John Fonda was confined in jail at Johnstown by Sheriff White, for a quarrel with the latter's servant. I learned from Mrs. Evert Tales, a daughter of John Fonda, that at the time of the quarrel referred to, Sheriff White lived as neighbor to Fonda, occupying a dwelling owned at his death by Sir William Johnson, which stood on the present site of the Fonda courthouse, and was occupied by Fonda after the war. A score or two of Fonda's whig friends, hearing that he was in jail, went there one night and set him at liberty. Sheriff White was then stopping at the village inn, kept by one Mattice : and thither the patriotic mob of the enlargement enterprise went to arrest him. Armed with a double-barreled gun, from an upper window he discovered Sampson Sammons, and fired at him. The shot was instantly returned by a number of the crowd, and the sheriff was slightly wounded. The report of their muskets caused the discharge of a cannon at Johnson Hall, a signal which the whigs well knew would soon bring together several hundred of Sir John Johnson's armed retainers, and the party withdrew. An entrance into the house was forced and a partial search made, but in the darkness and haste the sheriff was not found. It became known subsequently, that he was concealed in a chimney ; which fortunately gave him a footing out of sight.*
The arrest of Sheriff White was not shown in the committee's records at the time, but the narrative of Jacob Sammons referred to, stated that he was pursued to Jessup's Landing, on Hudson river, there captured and imprisoned in Albany. Who led this pursuing party is not known ; but a certificate of John Bay, secretary of the Albany county committee, gives the examination of several of the party who made his arrest. Jehiel Jackson, sergeant in Maj. Elmore's company of Col. Hinman's regiment, testified that he was present at the taking
* Statement of Jacob Sammons, in Stone's Brant, vol. 1, p. 106; and the narration of Mrs. Yates, a daughter of John Fonda.
of Alexander White, Esq., three white men and three Indians, at Mr. Gilliland's ; and that he heard said White swear he would be revenged on said Grilliland within 20 days after his release-threatening also many of the innocent inhabitants. Archilaus Whitten and Joseph Corkins, soldiers in the same company testified not only to his threats, but to those of Lewis Clement, one of the white men arrested with him, on Gilliland and on innocent people. Levy Wilkinson, of Capt. Griswold's company of same regiment ; also testified in a similar manner. The certificate of Mr. Bay has no date.*
Under date of October 2, 1775, New York city, + Mrs. Elizabeth, wife of Sheriff White, petitioned the New York Committee of Safety, in behalf of her husband, in which she stated that he had then been confined in jail for upwards of five weeks, which would place his arrest in the latter part of August. She stated that the first cause of complaint "proceeded from a charge of expressing himself unbecomingly as an enemy to the liberties of America, and thereon left his place of abode to go to Canada : whereas the cause, as your petitioner humbly apprehends and has reason to believe, was her husband's having arrested one John Fonda by a lawful authority, whereupon great disturbance arose, insomuch that many shots were fired at your petitioner's husband, who was greatly in danger of his life, and glad to get out of the way till the unhappy differences could be settled." Without going into other particulars, she hoped her humble prayer for her husband's discharge would be granted on his parole of honor, not in the future to act or do anything that could give the least offense. She desired the matter referred to the committee at Albany that he might be heard, in order to obtain his enlargement, etc. The matter was referred to the Albany committee for adjustment. It is said he was paroled, and soon after left the country.
February 8, 1783, Alexander White is named, with 30 others, who were banished and sent within the enemies lines, for refusing to take the oath prescribed by a law of the State, for the action of the committee of conspiracies.
* Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, vol. 1,
+ Calendar of Historical Manuscripts, vol. 1, p. 161.
Copyright © 1998, -- 2003. Berry Enterprises. All rights reserved. All items on the site are copyrighted. While we welcome you to use the information provided on this web site by copying it, or downloading it; this information is copyrighted and not to be reproduced for distribution, sale, or profit.